Ilya Panov

Unit Summary 2


Unit 2 introduced us to Egyptian , Greek and Roman art. Unlike the naturalistic art of the greeks or the romans, Egyptian art contained a functionality. Functionality that provided benefits to a leader.  As well as Egyptian statuary were used for ritual action and royal or elite statuaries served as a middle man between people and gods.

As well,a lot of Egyptian art contained what’s called a hierarchy of scale. Setting apart the Egyptian rulers and deities by making them much larger than a everyday Egyptian.

The Greeks were able to achieve a super naturalistic look in there art. They took the Kouros boy and added a more natural contrapposto stance. Clearly showing a displacement of weight between the legs , as if the statue is capable of movement as seen in the Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear-Bearer) or The Canon. The Greeks were also able to capture emotion  and motion in there art. As seen in ‘Great Altar of Zeus from Pergamon” expressions can can clearly be seen on the marble statue faces. Agony and confusion is portrayed on the faces and in the movement of the arms and body.

Roman was born out of civil war and naturally of there art depicts victories of major battles in service to the state. Victories such as Monument of Aemilius Paullus at Delphi).

Romans patrons also choose to be depicted in the marble stone with every flaw hyper announced, in hopes that this will portray them hard working citizen who acquired much wisdom through their lifetime. Flaws such as bald heads, large noses and, wrinkles were exaggerated as can be seen on  the Marble bust of a man,

Unit 2 Summary

If Mesopotamian, Ancient Egyptian, Greek and Roman art were looked together you would be able to identify the change from each other. The form of art depicted ranges from the worshiping of Gods to showing the potential of human beings. Each of these civilizations influences each other which shows change and adaptation in both society and art. First of all, in Mesopotamia one art showing worshiping is the Statue of Gudea in 2150 BCE in Neo Sumeria. The small stone figure is made to be durable and last a while. It can also be seen as a someone with a high status worshiping their religion or praying to a God due to their composure being seated and his hands together with a humble look.

Image result for statue of gudea

Moving on to Ancient Egypt is another example of worshiping. However, the pharaohs were looked upon as rulers are praised highly. Their social status was at the peak and were known to have a form of communication to the gods. They were the chain which connected the people to the many gods. The statue shown below is Menkaure and Queen 2491-2472 BCE which are the pharaoh and queen standing next to each other. It looks like it has been made through a similar material as the previous art, the Gudea. Their posture shows the superiority and power of the two. They are posed in an ideal posture. Their feet are close to each other while standing up vertically. Their are similarities to Mesopotamia and Egyptian art as seen between these two statues. The stiffness in their poses to the chunky like construction give it’s durability and strength. Also, they are posing as if they were prepared to be frozen in this moment.

One Greek statue that displays a young male is Kuros. The figure is nude, which represents its appreciation of the body in Greek art. The statue shows the physique of a young adult while displaying the softness of a human body at the same time. Kuros is standing straight, facing forward with two feet almost together, meaning the equal distribution of weight of the entire body. The curves in the facial features such as eyebrows and eyelid down to the knee caps resonate to a natural human body.

Image result for kuros


Final project Walking Tour

What I wanted to explore with this final project is the way that rulers were represented by their people through art more specifically sculptures. How differently they were carved, for example, I wanted to see how their facial features differed from region to region. I want to see if the body types are idealistic and unrealistic or if they are plausible and reasonable.


The Romans never really liked to hold back in their sculptures. They made sure they got the Rulers imperfections in their sculptures because they wanted to be realistic and make sure that people know exactly what their ruler looked like. An example is the piece above is a Bronze statue of the emperor Trebonianus Gallus they didn’t make him look as good as possible they gave him a gut and they made sure to carve in the wrinkles on the face of Trebonianus. Romans were influenced by Greek and Egyptian art when they took over their land. Roman art is usually seen as having less worth to the Greek pieces because the Greek art was first and it looks more ideal.


The French enjoyed making their leaders look strong in sculptures. Something that I have noticed when looking over the sculptures is that the leaders are always dressed up in a dignified way. This is a good example of how French leaders were represented. This is Louis XV and the king is shown wearing a suit of armor, a mantle thrown over his left shoulder, with the plaque and the ribbon of the Holy Spirit and the cordon of the Golden Fleece very high-class stuff. This sculpture is also made out of white marble a material that was used by the French in a lot of their early works where they later started to use bronze to sculpt.


Ancient Egyptians had a very strong connection to religion they made their sculptures with deities from their times. They lived to please their gods so it made sense that they would add gods to their artwork. This has been identified as Sahure, the second ruler of Dynasty 5. Seated on a throne, the king is accompanied by a smaller male figure the local god of the Coptite nome. This deity offers the king an ankh (hieroglyph meaning “life”) with his left hand. This is a great example of Egyptian sculpting because the rulers of Egypt in these days were seen almost as gods. It would make sense that their rulers were Seen as higher than some gods and I think we don’t see a lot of sculptures like this because most other regions like to keep religion out of their sculptures and are more focused on making their leaders look good.


Greeks wanted to be perfect. The sculptures of emperors and royals from Greece usually have perfect figures. They give them 6 packs and a really lean and fit body they take away the imperfections from their faces so that they can look their best. The Greeks change everything that they can in order to make their leaders look perfect and give them this godlike aura they also used marble as it was popular to use. This example is a bit beaten up but you can see how she has no wrinkles unlike the Romans her skin is smooth and her face seems symmetrical and there is detail on her hair. This is showing the head of a Ptolemaic queen and she is really well made which sums up how Greek art is made.


Mayan pieces of art are a lot different than anything else on this list because they weren’t really influenced by anyone else here because they were more isolated and didn’t really have contact with Europe. The material looks more like ceramics which is also unique as these other places use marble. Mayans also didn’t really care about looking good which is evident above the facial features aren’t even really even carved out with too much attention. What is shown in this sculpture is that the garments that they wear are important this is a king and his crown is fully carved out and attention to detail was very important as that is what showed dominance.


After looking at all these pieces It is evident that every generation influenced the next. Rulers were represented usually presented very powerful and a lot of these places tended to use marble as material to carve out of. What really connected all the early pieces is the fashion that they had. All the rulers were usually shirtless and wore nothing but their loincloth and their crowns or other pieces of importance. In conclusion, every work of art is unique however, you can see certain features being passed down from culture to culture and see the influence these cultures have had on each other.







Final Essay Annotated Bibliography (Second Topic)

Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History



Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History


Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History


These 3 pieces offer history to my project. With these sources I can better understand the conditions in which these pieces were built and why they were built. It gives us explanations on who these people were and what they have done to get statues built of them. It also helps because each one of these pieces of work come from a different region so we have more pieces to compare from for our project to see differences and similarities.

Roman Portrait Sculpture: Republican through CONSTANTINE


This post gives a lesson on the importance of sculptures and it talks about how they come to fruition. This tells us about how these statues were typically made to celebrate a noted military achievement, usually in connection with an official triumph, or to commemorate some worthy political achievement, such as the drafting of a treaty. We also learn about how bad emperors usually did not get one or they got their sculptures destroyed.

Roman Egypt Essay


This was is really important because it ties a connection between the Roman and the Egyptian pieces of work and how they are influenced from each other. Rome’s rule over Egypt officially began with the arrival of  Octavian in 30 B.C., following his defeat of Marc Antony and Cleopatra in the battle at Actium. It talks about how once Rome took over a new fascination with its ancient culture became influential. Obelisks and Egyptian-style architecture and sculpture were installed in Roman fora. This led to the changing and development of a new Egyptian style of sculptures and a new Roman style.

Final Project Outline/Background

Date:ca. 1500–1525


Museum: Metropolitan Museum of Art


Date:ca. 2458–2446 B.C.

Geography:From Egypt

Museum: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Artist:Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne the Younger (French, Paris 1704–1778 Paris)



Museum: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Date:A.D. 251–253


Museum: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Date:ca. 1250

Geography:Made in Burgundy, France


Museum: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Something that is within all the artworks above is the normality of the postures and facials expressions of the subjects used to covey. These are all pieces that are of royals and I chose this because I wanted to see how different types of cultures treat their rulers and how they represent them and preserve their memory through their art.

Final project

The Egyptian civilization is one of the most influential periods in human history. However the award for the most influential falls in the hands of the Greeks/Romans. The difference in Greek/Roman and Egyptian views of humanity in the world shows how humanity change overtime. Through more and more human discoveries, the more humanity moves into the center of the world. Humanism has changed how humans and other animals are depicted in Art.

Figure of a Cat, Saqqara, Egypt, 350 B.C.E. – 1st century C.E – Brooklyn Museum

This is a figure of a cat called Saqqara from Egypt 350 B.C.E. This cat would have been seen as a god or close to a god. Cats were handled with care and given the utmost respect from the people in Egypt. This cat was most likely treated better than the peasants and slaves. The reason for that was how people envisioned the world back then. There was nothing special about a human if they weren’t the Pharaoh. Cats, dogs and other animals were seen as high beings due to the fact that these gods were mixed with features of different animals. It is a great example for my theme because it shows how in Egyptian society, Humans were centered as much.

Statuette of Anubis, Egypt- 332–30 B.C.- Met

This figure is of the Egyptian god of embalming and death, Anubis. As I said before, certain animals had a certain importance because they had connections with gods. This is one example of an animal humanoid mixture. Anubis has a body of a human, but what anyone would recognize first would be head of a jackal. This is important to my theme because with the head of a jackal Anubis shows no real human emotions and is seen to be set apart from what a human being would be. The Egyptians made their gods so different from a human because they didn’t understand the world yet.

Roman statue of bearded Hercules- Met by Brandon Falls- Brooklyn Museum

This is statue is an image of Hercules. This is important because of what Hercules symbolizes. He symbolizes Humanism itself and how humanity has changed. He is the son of Zeus and Alcmene. This means his father was a god that mingled with human beings and had the same emotions of love and courtship as a regular human. This is a change from the past Egyptian beliefs of gods only having children with other gods. This shows that a god can come down and share the same emotional space as a human being. Obviously different from the past where gods showed no emotions to humans. Their best guest was that they angered the gods. This new system put humans in the center of the world along with the gods.

Sardonyx cameo fragment with Jupiter astride an eagle- 1st century B.C.–1st century A.D.- Met

For this figure i’ll be pointing out the animal representation in this piece from the Egyptian pieces. Unlike how animals were praised in the Egypt we see a change where animals are mere tools instead of worshipped. This has to do with Humanism. People believe themselves to be in the center of the world and more important than animals. Animals aren’t seen to be important until they are useful to be used by humans.

Latona and Her Children: Apollo and Diana- Met by William Henry Rinehart

This is the most important symbol that shows how Humanism changed the depiction of gods, people and animals. Here’s Lotana the mother of Apollo and Artemis, two powerful olympian gods. The reason this is important is because of the way it depicts these gods. This sculpture shows how humanism brings that gods down to a human level. This implies that gods came into existence through something like childbirth. Not only is Lotana caring for her children, if you look closer you can almost see the emotions in the picture. You can see her face admiring her children. Makes you feel as if those children were actual humans and not powerful gods.

Annotated Bibliography


Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, www.themodern.org/collection/conjoined/1241.

This art piece is called Conjoined and the artist is Roxy Paine. Conjoined is originally a piece from Roxy’s exhibit, ”Conjoined, Defunct and Erratic” in Madison Square ParkThis piece interests me because it shows how nature was overtaken by steel, technology,. But, it somehow still looked like nature. I truly found that fascinating. Conjoined is now part of the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth.


Biennale. “Ludo.” Weltkulturerbe Völklinger Hütte, 2017, www.voelklinger-huette.org/en/world-cultural-heritage-site-voelklingen-ironworks/artist-projects/ludo/.

This piece is called Völklinger by Ludo. Ludo is a Paris artist who works his Street Art along the lines of science fiction kinds of visions, ones in which nature and technology develop paradoxical connections. Ludo finds formal parallels between technological and organic growth and positions these elements together along such interfaces. In this piece we see a tree with poisonous green wire roots. This piece is now a part of the World Cultural Heritage Cite.


Oksenhorn, Stewart. “Art for Existentialism’s Sake.” Aspen Times, 4 Aug. 2004, www.aspentimes.com/news/art-for-existentialisms-sake/.

This art piece is called Defunct and the artist is Roxy Paine. Defunct is originally a piece from Roxy’s exhibit, ”Conjoined, Defunct and Erratic” in Madison Square Park. Defunct now resides in Aspen Art Museum. Defunct is a stainless steel tree sculpture on the museum’s front lawn. Paine’s striking work seems to reflect the tension between nature and technology. The shiny, metallic tree doesn’t quite fit in with the surrounding aspens, but neither is it wholly out of place.


Rojo, Jaime. “Brooklyn Street Art.”Cutthroat Trout & “The Art Of Beeing” in Reno, Nevada, 18 Feb. 2014, www.brooklynstreetart.com/theblog/2014/02/18/ludo/.

This piece is called Enjoy the Violence by Ludo. This is the same Ludo I mentioned before. He takes the images of nature perverted by weaponry and the growing militarism of society. This piece is a rose with brass knuckles growing from it (in Ludo’s signature poison green).


Valic, Mojca. “Ludo – Amsterdam 2013 The Work of Paris Based Ludo, Often Called Nature’s Revenge, Connects the World of Plants and Animals with Our Tech… | Street Art | Pinterest | Street Art, Street Artists and Art.” Pinterest, Pinterest, www.pinterest.com/pin/391039180117449918/?lp=true.

This piece doesn’t have a name but it’s by Ludo. It was created in Amsterdam in 2013. It is a tree with bolts connecting it to a machine. Ludo in general interests me. All his artwork is amazing, but I’m especially attracted to the way he perceives natures interaction with modern technology.

Metropolitan Museum Visit

First off, the Met museum is incredibly huge and I really liked the display of artwork inside.I liked is that it makes you feel as if you’re apart of the time period that you’re looking at. On the down side it was so big, I sort of feared getting lost. It was a tad bit overwhelming.

I’m going to be comparing the renaissance artwork, Virgin and Child with Four Angels,Virgin and Child with Four Angels, Gerard David (Netherlandish, Oudewater ca. 1455–1523 Bruges), Oil on woodand the Baroque artwork, Virgin and Child.Virgin and Child, Bartolomé Estebán Murillo (Spanish, Seville 1617–1682 Seville), Oil on canvas

I chose these two because they seemed the most similar in style but they are both different in small ways. First off, the timings of production of both paintings are different. If a painting was made in the 15th to 16th century then it was a renaissance artwork. If a painting is made during the late 16th to 17th century then it was a baroque artwork. Both Renaissance and baroque emphasize religion and can put a lot of importance on women. Both artworks I chose is based on a virgin woman. Another difference is that Renaissance artworks did not completely depict human emotion, while Baroque art focused more on showing them.
As you can see, the Virgin and Child with Four Angels painting give more emphasis to religion with the addition of angels while the Virgin and Child painting is more simple and gives importance to the main feature of the painting.


Topic= I would love to explore the way nature and technology mix in art. Sort of how technology is overtaking nature and there are some (very few) art works that show that.

Thesis= No matter how much we try to ignore it. Technology is overtaking nature and its about time art is showing that.

  1. Defunct by Roxy Paine, 2004, Aspen Art Museum. 
  2. Volklingen by ludo, 2015, World Cultural Heritage Site.
  3.  Noname, by ludo, 2013, Amsterdam
  4. Enjoy the Violence, by ludo, 2012

5. Conjoined, Roxy Paine, 2007, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth


The MET Visit

The MET has always been one of my favorite places to visit despite the long lines and large groups of tourist. Its size makes it is easy to get lost in, however, you still find something to look at and admire even if you can’t seem to figure out which part of the museum you are in. I have been there numerous times yet still find many things I have never seen before. The art from various cultures and eras makes it so that every corner of the museum has something that will pique someone’s interest, even those who aren’t fans of museums and find them boring. This visit was particularly fun because I saw many pieces that we actually studied in class, such as the sculpture of the Roman man’s portrait.

When examining the differences in Renaissance and Baroque art I focused mainly on paintings. At first it was difficult to tell the difference between the two eras because there are so many similarities. For example, in both Renaissance and Baroque art there was an emphasis on religion and religious figures. However, after looking for a while, it became more apparent that Baroque art was more dramatized and depicted scenes of chaotic emotions and actions. Meanwhile, Renaissance art, mainly from Italian origins, was much more natural with clear linear perspective and a focus on still life.

For the Renaissance era I used Fra Angelico’s “The Crucifixion,” dated to the 1420s. This is a great example of Renaissance art because it focuses on a violent religious event, however, the artist manages to make the scene appear delicate. The picture depicts Christ crucified on the cross with people surrounding him and angels in the background. Some of the men appear to be holding spears that have caused the wounds on Christ. There is blood coming out Christ’s chest, but true to Renaissance qualities even that appears still and light, like the other hues of red in the painting that are also light. Even the Virgin Mary passed out on the floor lacks the dramatic chaos of what would be seen if this were to be a Baroque painting. 


“The Rape of Tamar,” by Estauche Le Seur from the 1640s, is the Baroque painting that caught my attention because of what was being shown. Although there are only three people in the painting, it seems like there is a lot happening. At the forefront is a man with a dagger held high, aimed at a woman with her breasts peeking out of her disheveled dress. Both of their faces show fear, which adds to the mayhem surrounding them. True to Baroque era qualities, there is real sense of dramatic disorder, especially upon looking into the context of the story which is one of a man named Amnom- the son of David- raping his half-sister. This action in the painting is illustrated through the running maid in the background, the vases scattered on the floor, and the flying sheets and clothes. Despite being a painting, there is no stillness to the painting and the audience can practically feel the urgent emotions that are being shown.


Well, humanism is basically presenting human characteristics upon artwork or sculptures. The modern day answer or definition for humanism is supposedly the belief of humans should be showing respect towards other humans because they’re human or basically respect towards humanity. There are many sculptures that create a aspect of humanism that captures the structure of humans and their anatomy. The Greeks and Romans created sculptures that captured humanism while also capture the well-defined features of a human with detail. Their sculptures emphasized more depth towards anatomy and sports of hunting and such. Ancient Egyptians showed some artwork expressing human characteristics on deities. Some of the deities had heads of animals while some would just have human characters overall.