Annotated Bibliography


This article talks about the differences between Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman artwork. This article presents the similarities and differences amongst the two.


This article talks about the differences between Ancient Greek and Ancient Egyptian artwork. This article elaborates on different techniques used during each time period.


This article compares Ancient Roman and Ancient Egyptian artwork. It weighs in on the different music, sculptures and paintings that were idolized during that time period.


This article weighs in on the significant pieces of art produced during the Ancient Greek time period. This article shows images of the most popular sculptures made during the time period and elaborates on the techniques used to produce this artwork.


This article elaborates on the most popular art work produced during the Ancient Egyptian period of time.  This article explains the importance of the ancient pyramids and the meaning behind the coffins.

Final Project (Museum Tour)

Cassandra Moseley

Professor Shaw

Art 1010

Humanism became prominent in the Ancient worlds of Greece and Rome, which are very intertwined with one another. Humanism revolves around the Beauty of the Human form and its Essence. Humanism during the Greek and Roman era of artwork put humans at the center of everything; the human experience is at the center of all events in contrast to previous societies that put God at the center of everything. As time proceeds we begin to see an evolution of Humanism in which different elements begin to enhance this concept, most of which is seen through statues of men and women that were either prominent figures or part of mythology. Though, the evolution of Humanism can be seen through the different works of art that depict children during these Ancient times. Today, I will take you on a museum tour to explore the theme of children being depicted in artwork and their clear demonstration of the evolution of Humanism throughout the Ancient Worlds. We will begin the tour starting with Ancient Egypt.

This first image is Statue of Queen Ankhnes-myre II and her son, Pepy II, ca 2288-2224 or 2194 B.C.E., at the Brooklyn Museum. I am beginning this tour with this piece of artwork from the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. During this time, artwork still revolved around the different Egyptian Gods meaning that humans were not considered to be at the center of the universe at this point. I chose to begin with this particular piece because it is one of the first, and few times we see a child in artwork. In beginning the tour with this piece we can see that the child does not phenotypically display accurate representations of what children look/looked like. The child does not have any characteristic child features that would instantaneously make us assume that this was in fact a child. In the way the child was made to look in this piece, he just looks like a smaller version of an adult, again because he lacks resemblance to children. This piece of work is good to keep in mind as we explore the next few pieces.

The next image I wish to bring your attention to is Hermes with the Infant Dionysus, 4th century by Praxiteles at the Archaeological Museum of Olympia. Here we move into Ancient Greece where we see the development of Humanism. During this time we begin to see more art revolved around humans and the human body. I felt as though this piece was important to show on the tour because we can clearly see the evolution of Humanism in  Hermes, but we can also begin to see the development through infant Dionysus. Here we begin to see physical features of children that are similar to what we see in our everyday lives. Dionysus has the round and full face that infants often have as well as a smaller and pudgier body. I believe that this clearly shows development of Humanism in children because if the name of the piece was not given, a viewer could still identify that a child is being represented.

Next, we will look at Marble grave stele with a family group, ca. 360 B.C., Late Classical at the Metropolitan Museum. I brought you to this piece in particular so that we could observe a few details in this piece. In this marble grave stele we can take note of the two women and man, and the chid holding hands with who we could assume is her mother. I chose to show this piece because just like the previous sculpture, we can see a clear representation of a child, this time a little girl. At this point we can see through examining the child that the depiction of Humanism has begun to evolve. One observation we can take into account is the use of size to show that she is in fact representing a young girl. The mother’s hand that is holding the young girl’s hand is noticeably larger than the young girl’s. I would like to point this out because it looks slightly exaggerated, but it can be assumed this was done to show that this a very young child, perhaps between the ages of 5-8. Then, when we take a look at the young girl’s face it is hard to decipher her age range, and if the body were to be gone such as the case with the woman to the left of her, one could argue that it would be difficult to tell that she was a little girl. The size of the head could signify that she was supposed to be a young girl, but the facial features could make one weary. This is why I chose this piece, size is used to clearly depict a child in this family, but the facial features are similar to those of pieces of artwork depicting women. The child has softer features to show a child, but the overall face is still similar to a woman’s. This piece shows evolution in Humanism through the young girl, but there is still an ongoing use of adult-like features on young children at this point in time.

One other piece we will be observing and examining briefly is Bronze statue of Eros sleeping, 3rd-2nd century B.C., Hellenistic Period at the Metropolitan Museum. Even though this piece is representing mythology, we can see obvious evolution of Humanism through Eros being depicted as a child. Brief background for the Hellenistic Period that we are entering is that during Alexander the Great’s reign we see a change and evolution in Humanism. During this time, we begin to see more works of art showcasing different subject matter as well as accurate characterizations of age. On that note, we can really appreciate the details of this piece, which is why I brought you to this piece next. In this piece, even though it is a representation of Eros, we have a child as the main subject matter. In this sculpture we can clearly see many different physical features that are being used to show that this is a child, instead of the reliance on size. Here we see the use of softer lines for Eros’ body in order to give the body a softer and more plush appearance, physical features we expect to see in a child in real life. We even see Eros with chubby feet, again another physical feature that is associated with very young children. Now if we take a look at Eros’ face, the use of soft lines and grooves is used to, again, give the face a softer and rounder look. Also, the tousled curls that Eros has gives him another young boyish feature. I chose this piece because it coincides perfectly with my theme of the evolution of humanism depicted through children. Evolution of Humanism was evident during the Hellenistic Age especially with their true and accurate depictions of children. Here we see more focus on physical features to represent specific age groups instead of the use of size.

The last picture I will bring your attention to is Bronze statue of a camillus (acolyte), Roman A.D. 14-54, Early Imperial, Julio Claudian at the Metropolitan Museum. As time went on the Romans also began to use more children as subject matter, and there was a focus on physical features depicting accurate age. When taking a look back to the previous pieces and now to this one, we can really begin to appreciate the development of Humanism as time went on. Just like the previous piece, in this Roman sculpture we can appreciate the accurate child-like physical features of this young boy. Here, soft lines and grooves are used for his physical features to once again show that he is a young boy. Although his hair isn’t tousled like Eros, it is cropped, but boyish curls are still depicted giving this child a more youthful look. When looking at his face, we see another depiction of a round and soft face to show the youthfulness of this boy, something we associate with children. We also see a slight smile and the softness of the apples of his cheeks, a physical feature that is prominent amongst children. I wanted to point out this physical feature on the boy because it is one of the most child-like physical features to the point where we have a saying “…so cute I could pinch your cheeks”, which is most often said to children; and the Romans captured this so perfectly. We also see his body as having the correct ratios and proportions to that of a real human child. I believe that this was a good sculpture to close on because we can see through this statue that as civilizations evolved we begin to see the evolution in their detailing to accurately portray the human world. This piece helps to further the idea that children accurately display the development of Humanism throughout the Ancient worlds that we have explored and previous learned about in detail.

I would like to end this tour with some final thoughts about the explored theme and pieces of art works that we examined. In the beginning I proposed to you the idea that while men and women are mostly used to show the development of Humanism throughout the Ancient Worlds, children in artworks accurately show the evolution and development of Humanism. Throughout the different pieces that I showed we begin to see artistic development along with civilization development. In beginning with the piece Statue of Queen Ankhnes-myre II and her son, Pepy II, and then examining the other pieces we can truly appreciate the development of artist’s attention to physical features when it comes to the depiction of children; size is no longer the main detail used to depict children. We began to see the use of softer lines and grooves and accurate proportions in order to accurately represent children in the art world, and their classic physical features that make a viewer instantly assume that a child is being shown. The children in artworks perfectly show the development and evolution of Humanism in the art world.

Works Cited

“Bronze Statue of Eros Sleeping.” Khan Academy, Khan Academy, www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/greek-art/hellenistic/v/enamored.

Hemingway, Colette, and Seán Hemingway. “The Art of Classical Greece (ca. 480–323 B.C.).” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tacg/hd_tacg.htm (January 2008)

Hemingway, Colette, and Seán Hemingway. “Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/haht/hd_haht.htm (April 2007)

Nichols, Marden. “Contexts for the Display of Statues in Classical Antiquity.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/disp/hd_disp.htm (April 2010)

Final Essay (Second Topic Chosen)

Michael Cefalo
ARTD 1010 – 9:30 AM
Professor Shaw
Final Essay

Is Everything Connected?

                 Throughout the monumental span of history that our world has traversed through, we along with every other inhabitant have evolved a great deal. However not only have we undergone massive changes, but so has the art and sculptures produced during our ever-changing timeline. Looking back on what we have not only learned during the course of our semester but to the pieces that the Met Museum holds home to, we can begin to notice a similar trend in both the statues and art pieces. One might just play the thought off as a simple coincidence, a mere inspiration related incident that drove many pieces to follow the same trend. But if delved into deeper we can truly begin to see morsels of something greater that could be at play, something that in turn can tie everything we’ve seen throughout the last few months, and everything’s that’s been created during the last millennium, together.
Starting us off the beaten path are the sculptures I had seen at the Met. The statue of Eirene, the marble statue of the lion, and the bronze horse. At first read, these three pieces may seem as though they are leagues apart as if they have nothing to do with each other and were just made for the sake of it. And yes, that could very well be the case and they may not at all tie together, but with the information gathered about them, the times they were created, the place they originate from, and the backstories that spin their tales, we are able to weave together some loose points, giving us a pretty clear comparison. To start off, we have the piece known as the Bronze Horse. The Bronze Horse was the epitome of elegance, as it portrayed the Greeks use of Geometric art to create a wonderfully stylized piece. From this, the Greeks had begun to grow their art of creation and began to advance what they already could do. Transferring over to the piece known as the Marble Lion, we can see a clear-cut comparison. This statue usually sat guard at tombs of people with great importance, supposedly protecting them in both the mortal world and afterlife. It took the base model of the Bronze Horse and expanded on it, creating a full torso of a very realistic looking lion in a motion pose. Moving forward to the last statue I had observed from the Met, we have the Statue of Eirene. She, just as the lion, was created from a marble base (but had originally been created with a bronze base just as the Bronze Horse). Portrayed to be a goddess (daughter of Zeus and Themis), she was one of three maidens and was most closely associated with the fertility of the earth and the nurturing of children. Already closely relating to the previous two statues from the exhibit in terms of their surreal natures, they also relate in the fact that all three of them originate from Greece, and can be connected by either the product used to create them or through the form they take once completed. Though this is just the start of how each of them truly forms together. Although the may have proved to be base models for each other, they also turned out to be base models for the start of an artistic uprise in the early Roman empire. Each of these pieces were front-runners in inspiration for artists in Rome, as they had gathered pointers from each of these statues to create art in their fashion.
Upon gathering information from these three works of art and how they connect to create a much bigger picture, it is clear to see that many distinct art styles as well as sculptures tend to follow a certain “guideline” per say, or gather information from each other to create and evolve over a span of time. We have seen this many times over throughout the semester, and by doing so, I was able to incorporate that knowledge along with newfound information gathered from the Met and websites to fully conclude the ever so lingering question of if everything was truly connected. Although this may seem like a vague explanation of something that may have seemed bigger, it is, in fact, the key to unlocking a whole world of new views and methods of answering this question. It provides the baseline systemic method to follow whilst walking down this road of ever lingering questions, and the ways to solve them. Overall this was a very intriguing question to follow as a last hoorah to the wonderful semester and was made much clearer with the help of every topic gone over throughout the course.


Works Cited

The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/247173.

The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/248140.

The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/251050.

David, Ariel. “Linking the Past and the Present Through Art.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 7 Sept. 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/09/08/arts/08iht-rartisrael.html.

The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/blogs/teen-blog/renaissance- portrait/blog/studying-art-from-the-past.

Final Project

Throughout history, humanism has been prevalent in many different forms of art in order to show appreciation and value of human beings. Greek and Roman art creates a central focus on the human experience through the showcase of the human body itself. Through various Greek and Roman art, you are able to visually see the aesthetics and natural beauty shown through sculptures of humans. The marble statue of Kouros, The Greek Slave by Hiriam Powers, and the Statue of Emperor Trebonianus Gallus are all examples of humanism expressed through the visuals of the human body. These artworks encompass the stance of humanism through the appreciation of the human body as something beautiful in and of itself.

The Greek Slave by Hiriam Powers is one of the most well known sculptures by Power that expresses human experience through the visuals of the nude body. In The Greek Slave, we see a fully nude woman enchained in shackles posed in contrapposto. One reason for the stance of contrapposto was to make the woman look more realistic and have a more natural stance that we would see in the real world. This naturalistic representation of the human body shows the focus on human experience and appreciation of the human body. According to Zygmont, Powers himself says that “The Greek Slave is a woman who has been taken from one of the Greek Islands by the Turks in the time of the Greek revolution. Her father and mother, and perhaps all her kindred, have been destroyed by her foes, and she alone preserved as a treasure too valuable to be thrown away” (Zygmont). After being stripped of everything she has, the maiden is left with nothing but a locket and a small cross to show her devotion and faith to God. Through the showcase of the human body and intense anxiety in the woman awaiting her faith, the audience is able to connect with the sculpture and appreciate the sacrifices that this woman has gone through. The human body of The Greek Slave also allows the audience to connect with the sentiments of anti-slavery and visually picture the struggles that the woman in the sculpture has experienced. According to Reverend Orville Dewey, “The Greek Slave is clothed all over with sentiment; sheltered, protected by it from every profane eye. Brocade, cloth of gold, could not be a more complete protection than the vesture of holiness in which she stands” (Zygmont). In other words, the sculpture does not need to be clothed as the protection from God is all the protection she needs. Through the visuals of the human body itself in The Greek Slave, the audience is able to see the beauties in the human body of the woman and create visual images of the struggles and experiences of the slave during her hardships.

Moving to the Archaic Period, we are introduced to the free standing statue of Kouros. In contrast to The Greek Slave, the Kouros does not offer a realistic representation of the human body. “Frequently employed as grave markers, these sculptural types displayed unabashed nudity, highlighting their complicated hairstyles and abstracted musculature” (Gondek). The sculpture shows a nude male with a very stiff pose having one leg advanced over the other. This wouldn’t be your average every day posture that you would be accustomed to. Nevertheless, the elements of humanism are still evident through the patterns expressed on the human body. According to Richter, “The ideal of the art of the time was evidently not realism as we understand it, but a simplified conception of the human figure, solid harmonious structure, in which essentials were emphasized and generalized into beautiful patterns” (Richter, 52). These patterns that are seen in the neatly arranged hair and symmetrical body of the Kouros show the beauty in this human figure and the purpose of the sculpture to exist through lifetimes. Because the Kouros was meant for funerary purposes, the act of marking gravesites with this statue shows that people valued the meaning behind the statue. According to Harris and Zucker, the Kouros was a “symbol, an ideal of manhood and perfection.” Although different from the realistic and natural representation of the human body, the Kouros still successfully encompasses the elements of humanism through the patterns and the purpose of the statue itself.

The bronze statue of Emperor Trebonianus Gallus is an interesting statue that influenced many people of 3rd century Rome. According to Mattingly, Gallus was appointed the new emperor after the fall of former emperor Trajan Decius. Although people were suspicious of Decius’ death believing Gallus could have aided the enemies at the battle of Abrittus, Gallus did the best he could to protect people from the plague. Gallus ultimately died at the battle of Interamna. In regards to the statue itself, we see a sort of unusual figure displaying very disproportional elements. We are able to see the oversized torso and thighs making his head seem very small in comparison to his upper and lower body. This is very different in comparison to classical ideal figures such as the aesthetics seen in the Doryphoros. According to Marlowe and Harris, there are no archaeological records of this statue. That being said, scholars have come up with assumptions and interpretations of the statue to be so large in size because emperor Gallus was to represent how a soldier-emperor would look in 3rd century Rome. This explains the unnatural non-classical look to the statue because ideal figures in the classical period rose from the ranks of the senate. Scholars’ assumptions as to where the statue was located was at the site of military barracks. “There is little doubt that the site was Mediolanum, the great military centre of ever-growing importance in North Italy” (Mattingly, 37). Through the influence of the statue on soldiers, we are able to see the acceptance of the non classical body and the influences that this statue had on the soldiers that viewed it. They are able to visualize the experiences of the emperor through the visual of his human body.

Greek and Roman art displayed many forms of statues that represented ideas of humanism and appreciation of the human body. Through specific features in these statues, audiences are able to see the beauty in different representations of the human body.

Works Cited

Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker, “Marble statue of a kouros (New York  Kouros),” in Smarthistory, December 20, 2015, accessed December 9, 2018, https://smarthistory.org/marble-statue-of-a-kouros-new-york-kouros/.

Dr. Bryan Zygmont, “Hiram Powers, The Greek Slave,” in Smarthistory, January 24, 2018, https://smarthistory.org/hiram-power-greek-slave/.

Gisela M. A. Richter. “The Greek Kouros in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 53, 1933, pp. 51–53. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/627245.

Mattingly, Harold. “THE REIGNS OF TREBONIANUS GALLUS AND VOLUSIAN AND OF AEMILIAN.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, vol. 6, no. 1/2, 1946, pp. 36–46. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/42661251.

Dr. Renee M. Gondek, “Introduction to ancient Greek art,” in Smarthistory, August 14, 2016, accessed December 9, 2018, https://smarthistory.org/greek_intro/.


Final Project: Museum Tour

In this assignment, I will be taking you on a journey through my own version of the “Soul of a Nation” exhibition. I will be discussing African American hardships/struggles and the people who helped black people gain the freedom they deserve.

African Americans have been struggling to get freedom since the times of slavery. They been oppressed by white people for centuries. Black people have endured so much from slavery, racial inequality, and incarceration of black people. Although the road for African Americans has been rough throughout history, they were able to preserve through the struggle with the help of various people.

The first painting we will be looking at is The First One Hundred Years by Archibald Motley.

In this painting, Motley creates a spine-crawling piece of artwork. There are many things going on in this painting. When I first saw this, one of the first things that caught my eye was the lynching of the person. Throughout history, lynching was a form of punishment that was given to only black people. It was a cruel moment in time that African Americans had to go through. If you look closely you can see two signs that says “whites only” on the left side and “colored only” on the right side. During the 60s, black people and white people weren’t allowed to be anywhere together. Whites had their own bathrooms, salons, stores, and even water fountains. Black people weren’t racially equal to white people. This painting shows the many trials and tribulations that black people had to go through as a race and Motley does a good job portraying what African Americans went through.


We now move on to the painting  Unite by Barbara Jones-Hogu

In this painting you can see that there are a group of African Americans joining together for a cause. Looking at their hairstyles and the shape of their hands, you can see that they are apart of the Black Panther Party. The party was a movement that formed during the times of the Civil Rights. The group was created to help African Americans through police brutality. In the times of the Civil Rights movement, black people endured extreme brutality from police officers. They have been beaten and bruised by officers. In today’s society, there are many black people who were unarmed that have been struck down by police officers. African Americans have formed a new movement (Black Lives Matter) uniting together to fight and bring justice to those who has been slain by white police officers.


As we make our way through the exhibition, we come across another painting, Black Prince by Jarrell A. Wadsworth

This painting is a of a well-known person in history. Malcolm X is a known activist that helped black people get the justice they needed. This painting is different as Wadsworth uses letters and words to create it. As you look at the painting you can see that across the left side of his face it reads “Black Prince”. As you look down, there is a phrase across Malcolm’s shirt . It reads “I believe in anything necessary to correct unjust conditions political, economic, social, physical, anything necessary as long as it gets results”. Malcolm X was willing to do whatever it took to get justice. He didn’t care if it were violently or calmly; as long as it got the job done it didn’t matter. Malcolm X witnessed the injustice that black people were going through and was determined to make sure that justice was serve.


The next painting that we will be seeing is April 4 by Sam Gilliam

This painting created by Sam Gilliam is based on the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. He is known for helping African Americans be racially equally. He is best known for being one of the pioneers for the Civil Rights movement. He’s famous for holding many protests. Compared to Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr, wanted to have nonviolence protests. He wanted to peace in getting the justice that black people deserved. In doing what he could to help, he too was treated poorly by white people. On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr was assassinated. His life was taken away because he wanted to fight for the equality for African Americans. In the painting there are colors of red to represent the blood of King Jr.


As we come to a close on this exhibition, we see our final artwork.

Curtain for William and Peter by Melvin Edwards

This metal sculpture is made from barbed wire and chains. For every two wire there is a chain attach to them. This sculpture was created to for both slavery and incarceration. During the times of slavery, African Americans were constantly in chains. They had no freedom and they weren’t considered human beings. They were treated poorly and worse than animals. They were beaten and bruised everyday from their owners. Some slaves did running away to get the freedom they needed. When we see barbed wires, we often think of jail. There are many African Americans who are incarcerated. They are the race that has the most inmates in jail. There are black men who are also wrongfully convicted. Black people has endured so much wrong and so much hate from white people.


Through this mini exhibition of the “Soul of a Nation”, we learned that African Americans have gone through many hardships throughout the years. They were beaten and bruised fighting for the freedom and justice they deserved. During the times of slavery, the civil rights movement, and even incarceration, black people continued to unite and stand together. Activists such as  Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X did everything they could to help African Americans become integrated with white people. Despite all that black people have gone through as a race, they were able to unite and preserve through the struggles together.


Final Project

My project was to replicate King Tut’s mask and adapt it to today’s society. The beautiful and intricate mask of King Tut was designed in the image of the pharaoh and was intended to assist the king’s spirit in its transition to the afterlife. In addition to ensuring that the soul was able to recognize its own body, the burial mask transformed mortals to a godly state and allowed them to pass safely through the underworld. King Tut’s mask weighs about 25 pounds and stands about 2 feet tall. This priceless treasure is composed of a solid gold base inlaid with semi-precious stones such as lapis lazuli, obsidian, and quartz. The face of the mask, meant to be a likeness of King Tut, is made of a smooth, radiant gold. Ancient Egyptians associated gold with the sun god, Ra, and considered it to be a powerful material for aiding pharaohs in their journey to the afterlife. Sitting atop the pharaoh’s head is a traditional headpiece made of gold with bright blue stripes of lapis lazuli. In addition to the striking blue stripes, the headpiece features both a rearing cobra and a vulture. Known together as the “two ladies of the pharaoh”, these figures would have served a dual purpose of protecting the pharaoh from those who might oppose him and symbolize the king’s power over both Upper and Lower Egypt. Notable rings of lapis lazuli encircle the eyes of King Tut’s mask. Elaborate eye makeup was a standard for Egyptian royalty, as it created the almond eye shape which was considered desirable. One of the most notable features of King Tut’s mask is the long, narrow golden beard. False beards similar to the one on the mask would have been worn by the pharaoh as a symbol of his position as a living god and divine being. Coupled with the false beard, the crook and flail crossed over the chest would have emphasized the relationship between Osiris, lord of the underworld, and the spirit of the deceased pharaoh. Spells for protection and guidance from the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead are carved into the back and shoulders. My replication contained a few changes, such as painting King Tut a beard/moustache. The reason I did this was to make King Tut appear masculine. Yet it was kind of a failure. King Tut ended up appearing cross gendered. Which I guess can represent today’s society’s willingness to accept the LGBTQ community and further more. Being exposed to King Tuts mask as a kid always left the idea in my head that King Tut was a female. In the original mask King Tut has very feminine features. Adding a beard to my replication was my way of making it more masculine. Another reason I wanted to recreate King Tut’s mask is that when it was first created it was created with gold and very expensive jewelery that is hard to find on a day to day basis. Creating this project with just paint and paper was very interesting and it looked super close to King Tuts original mask. The art project was very fun!

Final Project

Final Project- Creative Project 

For my creative project, I have decided to make a piece inspired by the abstract expressionist artist, Jackson Pollock. Jackson Pollock was known for his drip paint style pieces that at first glance may just seem like random splatter on canvas, but in reality, these pieces were so much more. The movement was a direct result of the Post-World War 2 world where the world was somehow even more unstable than before.According to the Museum of Modern art, the abstract expressionist movement was born in the 1950s when “the spirit of optimism had morphed into a potent mix of power and paranoia,”  this due to the Cold War and fear of communism spread by the McCarthy hearings (Abstract Expressionism, Museum of Modern Art). Like I stated before, these paintings are so much more because they belong to a movement in which there is a  “direct relation to the artist’s emotions, expression, and mood, and showcased their feeling behind the pieces they designed” (Jackson Pollock and his Paintings, Jackson-pollock.org). This personal connection to the painting also allowed for artists to be non- objective and explore new unorthodox techniques to fulfill their emotional needs rather than to make a painting with a specific audience (other than themselves) in mind. Along with the emotional connections formed by the artist and their canvas, there are also technical aspects that make a painting an abstract expressionism piece such as “physical engagement with his materials welcomed gravity, velocity, and improvisation into the artistic process,” ensuring the current feelings of the artist are correctly translated into the canvas (Jackson Pollock, Museum of Modern Art).


My creative Project

At first, while researching Jackson Pollock and abstract expressionism I believed that creating my painting would be easy and effortless, but I was wrong. Many factors went into creating a piece that I was satisfied with including materials, colors, color combination, texture, and the use of negative space. In the beginning, I had to choose between using paint, nail polish, oil pastels, or crayons, and finally chose crayon. I had chosen Crayon because abstract expressionism artists used unconventional materials, Pollock using house paint, and I had believed that crayons and a blow dryer were unconventional materials. The use of crayon in my piece would also add some texture to it. After choosing crayons, I tested how melting crayon would react on paper and to my surprise, they actually did go together. I also learned to create the piece I wanted to create I had to control the crayon’s splatter as much as possible by positioning the crayon and blow dryer at a perfect angle and distance from the paper. On my first version,  I melted the crayons one by one but it proved ineffective as the melting the crayon would also start to melt the already dried wax on the paper.  On my second try, I chose a different color from the first failed piece of yellow, dandelion, orange, and green to pink, orange, and red. My second piece (first successful piece) was completed, but I was unsatisfied with the end result and the abundance of white negative space. My third and present version was like its second version, completely different from its predecessor, the paper was now painted completely in a darker and grayer Blue, the crayon colors where now black, dark purple, white, and gray, and the direction the crayons were melted was in a clockwise direction instead of diagonally towards the top left corner. My third version was my best one because I was able to add more elements that made the piece more well-rounded as well as staying true to the origins of the abstract expressionist and Jackson Pollock painting by connecting with my canvas and capture my state of mind and feeling (mostly fear and anxiety) into the piece.

Works cited

“Abstract Expressionism”, Museum of Modern Art, https://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/themes/abstract-expressionism/

“Jackson Pollock and his Paintings”, Jackson Pollock
Biography, Paintings, and Quotes, https://www.jackson-pollock.org/

“Jackson Pollock”, Museum of Modern Art,            https://www.moma.org/artists/4675

“Abstract Expressionism”, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/abex/hd_abex.htm

“Abstract Expressionism”, The Art Story Modern Art Insight, https://www.theartstory.org/movement-abstract-expressionism.htm