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Unit 2 Summary

Throughout the course, we have discussed various forms of culture that part takes in art history. It ranges from artworks in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia to artwork in Ancient Greece and Rome. Each era provided their society with a certain influence in day to day activities. For example, Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia had a society filled with a god worshiping civilization, meanwhile, Ancient Greece and Rome had more of an interest towards the incorporation of humanism in their artwork. Despite their great sense of polarity, each generation has a substantial amount of similarity between them. However, due to differences in ideology, the artwork in each era consists of contradicting principles.

Bouncing between each art period, it can clearly be seen at how different each society was. Starting from Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, much of their artwork consisted of worship towards god-like figures or deities. In their culture, looking up to a higher power was their answer in regards to everything in life. There had to be a God in which to eulogize. The afterlife was also a huge concept in which the people of Ancient Egypt highly praised. That is why it was constantly assimilated in the artwork of the Egyptians. Society during this time was also extremely based on class and money. For example, the concept of hierarchy can be seen in the piece known as The Standard of Ur. When looked upon closely, there are three levels that represent life differently. Within each level, you can see a portrayal of how certain people lived the life that they did. The most lower level portrays the subjects as slaves working for their master, delivering something like a gift for their god. The upper level shows a being larger than the rest of the subjects who breaks the barrier of the upper border. In Egyptian society, a God is commonly represented in art as the largest being visible, which explains the unusually large figure in this art piece.  This God is presented as the almighty being, while all his subjects are kneeling and sitting before him. As previously stated, the Egyptians took great lengths into depicting a huge part of their culture into their artwork, of which is the appraisal of deities and god-like representations.

While the ancient Egyptians took their time in depicting Gods and worshipers, the Romans and Greeks had a much different idea of what should be incorporated into their artwork. The Romans and Greeks believed in the concept of humanism. This is when art is primarily based on human-like structures rather than God-like in order to convey the reality of being human. An example of humanism in the culture of the Romans and Greeks would be the statue of Kouros. As stated in my previous blog post, This is an ancient sculpture representing the nude male youth in an upright stature. In Greek, the name Kouros even means ” youth, boy, especially of noble rank.”  The Kouros statue shows a nude male standing straight on both feet, one foot forward, and one foot backward. Anatomically when standing this way, it is quite uncomfortable, however, this was how the ideal male youth was depicted. It is also portrayed as nude because, in the Greek culture, nudity was deemed as prideful and as showing a sense of unimaginable strength.

From the creation of the Kouros figurine, comes the creation of the Kritios Boy and Polykleitos. As time went by, the standard of what a male should look like increased in stature. Broader shoulders were being depicted, as well, as a stronger core. The stance of the figure also changed since the Kouros. The Kourous had a very rigid stance, more of uncomfortable. The Polykleitos, on the other hand, had a very loose stance with one leg bent.

Another huge concept in which the Romans and Greeks have integrated into their artwork is human portraiture. This was a concept in which they believed that the human face should be shown as it is. The flaws of the face were specifically targeted in creating a bust.

With all these differences come subtle similarities between the two eras of artwork. Some of these similarities include the portrayal of individuals that symbolize a sort of power for the rest of civilization, diverging only in the way it is presented. One civilization presents it in the way of the Gods, and the other civilization presents it in the way of warriors, nudity or kings. Despite the differences or similarities, each piece of artwork has a great influence on modern day society. It has shaped the way we think, create, and utilize are artistic talent. Much of modern art has evolved from the basics of the Ancient world and it is amazing to understand the artistic evolution presented before me. Human creation will continue to learn from past artwork, and society will continue to be blessed with masterpieces.

Image result for kouros, kritios boy, and polykleitos       Image result for kouros

Image result for kritios boyImage result for human portraiture ancient rome

Unit 2 Summary

If Mesopotamian, Ancient Egyptian, Greek and Roman art were looked together you would be able to identify the change from each other. The form of art depicted ranges from the worshiping of Gods to showing the potential of human beings. Each of these civilizations influences each other which shows change and adaptation in both society and art. First of all, in Mesopotamia one art showing worshiping is the Statue of Gudea in 2150 BCE in Neo Sumeria. The small stone figure is made to be durable and last a while. It can also be seen as a someone with a high status worshiping their religion or praying to a God due to their composure being seated and his hands together with a humble look.

Image result for statue of gudea

Moving on to Ancient Egypt is another example of worshiping. However, the pharaohs were looked upon as rulers are praised highly. Their social status was at the peak and were known to have a form of communication to the gods. They were the chain which connected the people to the many gods. The statue shown below is Menkaure and Queen 2491-2472 BCE which are the pharaoh and queen standing next to each other. It looks like it has been made through a similar material as the previous art, the Gudea. Their posture shows the superiority and power of the two. They are posed in an ideal posture. Their feet are close to each other while standing up vertically. Their are similarities to Mesopotamia and Egyptian art as seen between these two statues. The stiffness in their poses to the chunky like construction give it’s durability and strength. Also, they are posing as if they were prepared to be frozen in this moment.

One Greek statue that displays a young male is Kuros. The figure is nude, which represents its appreciation of the body in Greek art. The statue shows the physique of a young adult while displaying the softness of a human body at the same time. Kuros is standing straight, facing forward with two feet almost together, meaning the equal distribution of weight of the entire body. The curves in the facial features such as eyebrows and eyelid down to the knee caps resonate to a natural human body.

Image result for kuros

 

Unit 2 Summary

Throughout the second unit of Art 1010 I learned a lot about ancient civilizations and how art from those civilizations are similar and how they are different. The four main civilizations that we focused on throughout this unit were Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, and early Ancient Rome.

Mesopotamia

The first civilization that we focused on in this second unit was Mesopotamia. Mesopotamian art tend to focus more on being symbolic and it was mainly used as a form to worship the Mesopotamian deities. An example of a piece of Mesopotamian art work is the sculpture named The Standing Male Worshiper. The sculpture was used as a stand in for someone was unable to pray to the deity. Due to the fact that it’s only purpose to worship a deity there was no real detail that can really be seen in the physical sculpture. The only detail that can be seen is the stylistic waves of the beard, the abnormally large eyes and nose with its small mouth and the basic detailing at the bottom of its robe.

Image result for the standing male worshipper

Ancient Egypt

Another civilization which we learned about during the second unit of Art 1010 was ancient Egypt. Similar to art work from Mesopotamia, Egyptian art work was also centered around religion and worshiping deities. However, unlike Mesopotamian art which only focused on worshiping deities, Egyptian art also focused on people who were divine or had divine power and how they would interact with the deities or how they were judged/treated by the deities. An example of an Egyptian art work is the Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer, From his Tomb. This painting represents deities judging Hu-Nefer, a royal scribe who lived a good and religious life. In the painting It shows Hu-Nefer being lead by Anubis to a scale in which his heart will be weighed against a feather of Mo’at, since his heart is lighter than the feather Hu-Nefer is granted eternal life and is sparred from being eaten by Ammit, As these events occur he divine scribe, Thoth, is writing them down. After having his heart balanced he is lead by Horus to Osiris. In the top register it can be seen that Hu-Nefer is praising a long line of deities for allowing him to have eternal life.

Image result for last judgement of hunefer

Ancient Greece

Yet another civilization that we learned about during the second unit of art 1010 was ancient Greece. Unlike Mesopotamian and Egyptian art, which focused more on gods and served to honor/respect them, Greek art focused more on humans and more importantly how humans are at the center of moral and social concerns. This shift from a focus of deities to humans is known as Humanism. An example of a piece of art work that shows this shift is the Marble Statue of Kouros. When comparing this Greek sculpture to the Mesopotamian mentioned above we can see major changes. The Marble Statue of Kouros is more detailed then The Standing Male Worshiper, it emphasizes details to the human represented in the artwork by giving them abs and also by adding detail to their face it gives the statue a sense of emotion. There is also a change in the hair style, no facial hair, and a sense of motion thanks to one foot being in front of the other making it so that most of the weight of the figure to be on that leg that is forward, this is known as contrapposto.

Image result for statue of kouros

Ancient Rome

The final civilization that we talked about during the second unit of art 1010 was early ancient Rome. Like ancient Greece, early ancient Rome also tend to focus more on humans and humanism instead of deities on religion. One similarity yet difference that Roman art has with Greek art is that they both focus on putting detail on the humans represented in their art work but Roman art is far more detailed then Greek art. An example of a Roman art work is Polykleitos, Doryphoros. Unlike the Mesopotamian and Egyptian art works, the Roman statue Polykleitos, Doryphoros focuses more on humans it has a lot of more detailing on the human body, similar to the Marble Statue of Kouros. The hair is less stylistic and more natrualistic, the facial features are not only proportional to each other but also to the entire body of the sculpture, these features also seem to express some form of emotion, something that could not be seen in art from Mesopotamia or Egypt. Another major difference is the stance. most Mesopotamian and Egyptian works of art are of people standing completely straight without any sense of motion in their body unlike Greek and Roman art in which there seems to be motion in all their artworks such as in Polykleitos, Doryphoros. The man represented in this art work is leaning on his right leg instead of standing straight up, this once again shows contrapposto like in the Marble Statue of Kouros,most of the weight of the statue is on the right leg which is why this particular art work has a support on its left leg.

Image result for Polykleitos, Doryphoros

Unit 2 summary

The concepts of statues was the first thing I think we learned. The value of the caving of concepts before the “gods”. The statues where small and had values either extrinsic to their life style or the sense of fear the the gods might smite them out of not being worshiped. while others become more tuned to their

As time moved on the statues became larger and had more defined religious and cultural definition.  The Egyptians and the Mesopotamian art was had a stronger focus on the spiritual deity in their cultures. The Mesopotamian statues where huge with beast like structures and a human head which was believed to be a deity that protected the structure within. While The Egyptians had the belief of the gods as a form of judgment on them and their culture surrounded the idea of dead and embalming creating statue that fit the surrounding terrain more than any thing else really. The Idea of a pharaoh and a orderly form of servants and people with relation to the gods was the main focus of creating monoliths specific to their culture. Building  the pyramid as tomb and the temple around it showed the dedication to their belief. As shown the god of death Anubis is a man with a jackal head judging the peoples heart before he allows them to past.

Egypte – Photo © Richard Soberka – http://www.photoway.com/

The Greeks and the Romans define their art to be more human creating marble statues that celebrates the human body “kouros” .  The added humanism and color to the figure

 

The Greeks that slowly moved from the ideal more symmetric structure of a ideal athletic figure to more of a organic human structure that has more of a curve and more realistic facial features. While still being faithful to their religion they portray their gods in marble to re enforce the concepts of their culture as people and how they also take advantages to the usage of the materiel to carve more intricate ideas into the statue it self

 

 

 

 

Temples where built using the concepts of math and advancements they had found and is also apart of what made the art pop out while being efficient at lowering the weight of the walls.

As they may still build  as time moves on the statues are upgraded to being hollow cast in bronze and as time moved further on the fallout of the once beautiful art be came muddied over time and less persevered of the original intentions.

the thing that ties most of the art together would be the usage of color to show what their civilization has mastered and how it complements the art it self

 

Unit 2: The Ancient World

In unit 2, we explored art within Ancient civilizations, including Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Much like everything else, the history of their art also provided us with insight into the state of their society and environment, as well as their beliefs and values. These civilizations had many similarities and differences in their art, which also reflects what they considered to be of importance.

One of the most common theme amongst the art of the ancient world was religion. The Mesopotamian’s and the Egyptians were similar in the fact that their “Gods” often had animalistic features. This was a way to create obvious distinction between the power and status of the Gods and humans. We can also see the blatant socioeconomic differences between rulers and common civilians in both of these civilizations art. The Standard of Ur, from the Royal Tombs at Ur, is a good example of Mesopotamian art that depicts this. With two sides to the “standard” we can see the two sides of life at the time: peace and war. Not only does the standard depict order and chaos but it also makes the concepts of the class and hierarchal system of the society more evident. The people (and animals) on the bottom level, who are the common people are less detailed, while the people on the top who are royalty are much more detailed. This is similar to the Egyptian Palette of King Narmer, because it also portrays scenes of war, power, and hierarchy. Narmer, who was royalty and the Falcon, who was a God are both the biggest and most detailed are in the top level, to show their importance. Meanwhile, those on the bottom are much less important as they appear dead. This kind of art was common and showed that the people during this time valued royalty and religion. It also allows the audience a peek into the significant details and lifestyles of the civilizetions.

the standard of ur
Palette of Narmer

 

 

Doryphoros

 

 

 

The Greek and Romans, unlike the Egyptians and Mesopotamians, embraced humanist concepts more frequently. They believed that embracing the human qualities was important and portrayed their Gods to have such qualities. While the Greeks used their ability to illustrate motion and stance in their more idealized versions of the human body, the Romans on the other hand chose to make their sculptures appear more lifelike by focusing on the details of the human body and face and not shying away from the “flaws” of humans. For example, Polykleitos’ Doryphoros represents the Greeks’ idealistic image of the male body. Doryphoros’ contrapposto stance, with his weight resting on one leg and his shoulders more balanced, provided a more realistic stance than those of sculptures from earlier civilizations. Nevertheless, where his body exuded strength, power, and athleticism, his face lacked any distinguishable features.

 

Despite taking inspiration from the Greeks, the Romans looked past the practically unattainable “perfect” male bodies, choosing to focus more on the imperfect human aspects. They even made sure their Gods were portrayed wearing clothes rather than complete nakedness. The Romans chose to go with the concept of portraiture because it reflected their goals as a Republic. They were eager to represent themselves with balding heads and wrinkles which they viewed as a way of showing wisdom and hard work rather than flaws.

 

Summary of Ancient Art-Unit 2

Art of the ancient world is an expression of the different cultures. The way the statues and art are made differ depending on what the culture deems important. For example, Mesopotamian and Egyptian art focus on Gds and Deities. While Greek culture is entirely different their art focused on Humanism. The idea that humans play an important role in society. This Humanistic belief is carried on to Roman culture with slight differences in the nuances.

Mesopotamian and Egyptian art are both very expressionless and their figures are formed in a way that makes them seem aloof. They lack the curvature of a natural body and their figures lack movement. Formal frontality is used to describe the forward facing stance of most Egyptian sculptures. Most sculptures were used for ritual purposes often their hands are clasped and eyes wide which represents their attentive attributes towards the Gds. Ready to listen, pray, and perform for their Gds, all for the purpose of an afterlife. You can see in the image of King Menkaura his and Queen that although they have one forward in a sort of motion the rigid positions they are in lacking

the feeling that they are realistic.

The art coming from Greek culture takes a completely different turn from what we know Ancient art to be from the Egyptians. They introduced the idea of Humanism, Where people were not a nuisance to the Gds as previously believed rather an important and vital role. The Greek period is divided into four stages; Geometric, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic. The Geometric and Archaic art more similar to the Egyptians as depicted in the sculpture of the Kouros. They imitated their marble carving technique and the sculpture stance is similar to what we already know. The Classical and Hellenistic period is where Greek art gets most of its fame. Their sculptures represent an authentic version of the human body. Trying to imitate and even idealize what humans are meant to look like. Their fame for little or no clothing and the Olympics further show their appreciation for humans. Even their Gds have human 

characteristics, unlike Egyptians. As seen in the Bronze sculpture which is believed to be the Greek Gd Zuess (missing his lighting bolt) looks to have a completely human with unrealistic and idealized features. The Greeks were also famous for introducing contrapposto pose that many sculptures have which shows philosophical thinking and are meant to make the sculptures come to life.

The Romans continued this Hellenistic belief and their sculptures furthered this idea by making them even more Naturalistic. The sculpture of Augustus the first Emporer of Rome has many fine details including the Gds portrayed on

his armor. Although he was meant to be a fierce warrior his muscular build doesn’t stick out as unnatural rather a more relatable strength. A common representation of Roman art is Portraiture. It shows the fleshy naturalistic style the which was most common in their culture. They often used Portraiture for ancestry worship and had large funerary processions displaying ancestors.

Unit 2 Summary

Art in the ancient world varied from nation to nation. The Mesopotamian’s had sculptures of people that would pose but lacked in depth features and characteristic’s. For example, Kouros from six hundred  BC, depicts a person standing with their left foot out and their right foot back to keep some form of balance for the sculpture.  This is also seen in the sculpture also named Kouros but was found in Anavysos and was made approximately 530 BCE. At first glance the two are almost copy’s of each other however have slight differences. Such as the toning and definition given to the second Kouros’s torso. The head isn’t elongated as the first sculpture and feels more expanded. The arms are larger as well as all other parts of the body in the second sculpture.

    One thing that may stand out is how or why would different nations construct the same sculptures with only minor differences? In the Ancient Era when nations pillaged the other they would claim not only the city and population, but also absorb a piece of their culture and art pieces. If not by war were the sculptures plundered it was simply through cultural diffusion and trade of knowledge. Later on the ancient Greeks made their own version of Kouros; It is named Polykleitos, Doryphoros made around 450-440 BCE. In this version of the Kouros, the sculpture is more muscular and more defined than previous versions. It resembles a more realistic depiction of a Greek athlete male in his youth. The foot work is similar in that the right foot is forward but the left leg is back with a bend to give a sort of balance to the sculpture. The right arm is not put down and side to side but are active, which symbolizes he could be holding either a spear or flag further creating the assumption he is a solider of some kind.

Much after the Greeks had their rise to prominence, another nation rose from it’s luster. The Roman Republic which later became the Roman Empire adopted much of the culture form the Greeks, this includes a basic democratic system as well as sculpture and art. One Roman sculpture has similarities to the previously mentioned  Polykleitos, Doryphoros, it is Augustus of Prima. The Roman Republic at the time turned into the Roman Empire due to its civil war between Augustus Caesar and Pompey. It concluded in Pompey’s defeat when he was found executed by the Alexandrian’s to present to Julius as a extension of faith. The resulting civil war caused the the public to be uncertain of what would come next. Augustus knew how important self image was, and that being the legitimate ruler of Rome was a important to not only show but enforce unto himself. To show the strength and the military ferocity of their new leader he erected many statues such as the Augustus of Prima. The statue is very much similar to the  Polykleitos, Doryphoros; for example the footwork is the exact same style as the Greek version. As well as the left side of the body positioned to hold a spear. The notable differences is only the features on the head and hair which depict Augustus Caesar.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      

Unit 2 Summary

 

Both Greek and Roman art have similarities in the way that they both usually make art that represents their leaders such as sculptures. They both also have many different monuments that honor history that have been made after a significant event.

Something that differentiates Greek and Roman art a lot is that Roman artists did not strive to create perfect representations of human forms. They created sculptures of emperors exaggerating their art to show power of the emperors however something that Romans did was they put into consideration all of the flaws that the rulers had whether it had been saggy skin, skinny, or modest build.  The Greeks also made their rulers look very powerful and made them look great however, they made the rulers look perfect like they gave them clear skin a good lean build made them tall and they were also symmetrical.  I thought that this Separated them the most  because it showed how the Greeks wanted people to look back on them like they were this great genetically perfect species that were powerful and perfect. The Romans wanted people to look back and see exactly what their rulers look like and they wanted people to remember more than anything. This is why roman art felt more genuine when looking at Greek art it makes you say yeah right and you doubt the authenticity of the people that are in the piece of art.

Something that they both have in common is that aesthetic aside they both want to make their rulers look powerful they like to make their rulers the center of attention. Something that looks as if similar is the material that was used to create these sculptures they both look as if they used limestone or marble in order to craft their monuments. Both of these places thrived around the same time period so a lot of their work looks similar and can be mistaken to be from either side.

Both of these look as if they take influence from each other after doing a bit of research Roman art was considered “copied” from the Greeks and that is why it is valued as less than the Greek pieces.  I also discovered that both the Greeks and the Romans like to depict the gods although they go by different names in each culture such as Neptune and Poseidon.

Something that these culture have also shown is that they are both very fierce and they are not afraid to show violence in their works and depict how merciless they were in war and how they kill the prisoners in war. Both of these places loved to show how powerful they were and flaunted their power in their works of art they wanted to seem powerful so they would both dishonor the other works of art from other countries by defacing them and making their own pieces of art over them they might even change the face of the pieces of work into the faces of their emperors. Often they would make the most powerful people the biggest in works of art and they would emphasize this so that people can assume the most important people.

MD: Unit 2 summary

              Ancient greece, a city state formed  between 800 B.C. and 500 B.C. was ruled by Gods and Goddesses, similar to the ideals of ancient Egypt, however, these supernatural beings were brought down to the standards of the human being.  Humanistic actions, emotions, and ideals, were seen through the their artwork. Humanism emphasizes an importance to human culture, our values, problems and needs rather than only the needs and ideals of supernatural entities.  The Kouros figure was made to emulate an ideal human, though it was abstract. The eyes, and the face were not as realistic as we see in art from other civilizations. The Kouros stands on its own two feet, which emphasises the humanistic action of walking, and it stands freely.  Additionally, other sculptures, such as The Doryphoros, resembling a body-builders highly muscular body type (geometrical and balanced), resemble humanistic qualities, because they reflect Greek values. For example, the sculpture may have emulated this male physique because of their participation in the military, and  their love of sports as well. The artist chose to show that they are physically fit, and “God like”, yet have human values. Additionally, nudity was a major factor in Greek humanism. They embraced nudity, which was a sign of Greek culture, allowing the focus to be on the individual rather than their status in society, unlike in Egyptian art.

               Ancient Egypt, founded in the Early Dynastic Period (3100-2686 B.C.) highly valued their gods and goddesses. Unlike in Greek art, in Egyptian art, the Gods and Goddesses were seen as completely separate beings, that were not supposed to have human like attributes.  They were held at a separate rank in society. Unlike in Greek civilization, where artwork showed gods and goddesses that were standing freely, in Egyptian art, Gods and Goddesses were boxed in the walls of pyramids, creating a sense of separation and distance between humans and gods. They were also clothed indicating their hierarchy, as nude figures were looked down upon in society.  

               Finally in ancient Rome, founded in the 8th century BC, hellenistic art, which was inspired by Greek art was created.  We see a shift to a more realistic form of the human being. Realism, an unidealized form of the human being was seen in their artwork.  In Roman Portraiture, emphasis was placed on age, by showing details in the skin  including wrinkles. They emphasized age to show the importance of wizdom, learning, experience, achievement (possibly in the military), and patience in society.  Romans showed things how they actually look in the natural world, not placing ideals on looking “perfect”. Adding on, In Roman art, figures were clothed, unlike in Greek art. Finally, we see an appearance of a female figure, who were seen as non human in ancient Greece.

            Within ancient cultures such as Greece, Egypt and Rome, their specific values and traditions are reflected in each of their different styles of art.  Unlike in ancient Egypt, where Gods and Goddesses were held at the highest value in society, in Greece, an emphasis on the ideal human was reflected in their art and in Rome, a more realistic human was depicted.

Blog Post 9: Unit 2 Summary

In Unit 2, we  learned about art from the Ancient World. This includes art from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and early Rome. Their styles of art varied greatly in some ways and insignificantly in other ways. I’m choosing to focus on Mesopotamia, Greece, and early Rome, although Egyptian art is similar in some ways to Mesopotamian and Grecian art, in different ways. The Mesopotamian art focused more on function than it did on form, so its sculpture of the Sumerian worshiper did not have naturalism to it. Although it had general features of a person, its eyes were exaggerated to be enlarged, its hair was fancier than natural for a person, and it did not have many human details in its features. Greco-roman art differed in this aspect greatly.

Greco-roman art had a lot of humanism in it. Both the Doryphoros and the Bust of a Roman portraiture had a lot of details that made them appear as though they could be in the room with you. The Doryphoros had good proportions and one can see that the Greeks had a good eye for detail in his knees, torso, and arms. His face was a bit idealized, however, and looked a bit ‘perfect.’ The Bust of the Roman looked like an individual that you might run into on the streets. His expression was very clear, and there were details specific to him in the sagging of his cheeks and chin.

The Grecian art and the Mesopotamian art both shared a sense of idealism in the way they made their art. The art was made to idealize aspects of the sculpture (for Mesopotamia, it was the function of faith idealized; for Greece, it was the young human male body idealized). Roman art, on the other hand, cared not for idealizing what it portrayed, but in capturing the true look of the person who was being sculpted.

Both Greece and Rome wanted to capture form over function, unlike Mesopotamia. They wanted to capture humanism in its strongest way. The Greeks did this through the use of apparent motion; the Romans did this through careful incisions in the face that made the person look almost as though the material was skin not rock.

Unlike Mesopotamia and Rome, Greece actually did not use stone to cover the Doryphoros. They used bronze, but the only thing left of this work of art, was the marble copy that Rome created to celebrate the Grecian art. This shows each cultures’ preferred medium for creating works of art.

Interestingly, of these three works of art, the hairstyle is not consistent. In fact, as time passes, the amount of hair sculpted actually decreases. The Mesopotamians clearly valued hair for it is highly aestheticized. The Greeks clearly did not for there is very little detail put into the hair (even though they are clearly capable of doing so). The Romans did not care for it either, but only because the man they were sculpting did not have hair (and they wanted to portray the man as he actually was in real life). 

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Unit 2 summary

 

Egyptian and Mesopotamian sculptures and art

Both Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt have many things in common. Both are considered two of the very first civilizations and both have similar beliefs and systems. The similarities between their artwork is even more astonishing. When looking at their artwork you can make out the similarities. Their artwork tells a story of how they lived their lives, their believes and even events that took place. The most obvious thing to point out would be the way that they depict their gods. Both show their gods towering over the people and/or striking enemy to show strength and power. Another thing someone can have no problem pointing out would be that no matter how powerful the king was, the gods were always sculpted to be looking over the King. Essentially they were showing how the gods were watching over the gods were watching over the King. One important thing about the gods were the way they were depicted in these times. The gods were more resembling of a mixture of creates than actual humans. This was to differentiate between gods and humans because gods were seen to be the the center of the world. Meaning we should never compare ourselves to such beings.

 

Greek and Roman art    

The Romans and Greeks have a lot in common too. Mostly due to the fact that the Romans literally copied the Greeks when the Greek empire fell. Both civilizations are a change from the Egyptian and the Mesopotamian empires. One change is the way gods were depicted. Gods were depicted to be more human like to put men in the mix of being in the center of the world. The change was more obvious in the way art of humans were done. Unlike Egyptian and Mesopotamian art, Greek and later Roman artwork portrayed a full 3D model of a human.

Greek

During the Hellenistic period one of the first popular sculpture of the Greek would be the “Kouros”. The Kouros was a sculpture which depicted what an ideal male body would have looked like. It had a very muscular body and athletic body. One interesting thing about the Greek was that overtime the artwork got more realistic. An example of this would be the Doryphoros done by  Polykleitos. This shows a magnificent change in artstyle for the Greek. The Doryphoros shows you all the muscle tone and each detail of the body. This shows realism for it is to depict a real man. The most realistic thing about to sculpture would be the way the it stood like a real human. Most sculptures before were built in an awkward positioning. The Doryphoros stance is called the contrapposto. This is the stance of all humans.

                                      

Romans

After the the Greek empire fell the arise the Roman empire, who were so obsessed with Greek art that they copied it for themselves. The Romans continued the same path of the Greeks in terms of artwork, where it gets more realistic overtime. One example would be “ the marble bust of a man.” This sculpture almost looks real life as it’s stone face looks almost like real flesh and soft to the touch.