Annotated Bibliography


Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, www.themodern.org/collection/conjoined/1241.

This art piece is called Conjoined and the artist is Roxy Paine. Conjoined is originally a piece from Roxy’s exhibit, ”Conjoined, Defunct and Erratic” in Madison Square ParkThis piece interests me because it shows how nature was overtaken by steel, technology,. But, it somehow still looked like nature. I truly found that fascinating. Conjoined is now part of the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth.


Biennale. “Ludo.” Weltkulturerbe Völklinger Hütte, 2017, www.voelklinger-huette.org/en/world-cultural-heritage-site-voelklingen-ironworks/artist-projects/ludo/.

This piece is called Völklinger by Ludo. Ludo is a Paris artist who works his Street Art along the lines of science fiction kinds of visions, ones in which nature and technology develop paradoxical connections. Ludo finds formal parallels between technological and organic growth and positions these elements together along such interfaces. In this piece we see a tree with poisonous green wire roots. This piece is now a part of the World Cultural Heritage Cite.


Oksenhorn, Stewart. “Art for Existentialism’s Sake.” Aspen Times, 4 Aug. 2004, www.aspentimes.com/news/art-for-existentialisms-sake/.

This art piece is called Defunct and the artist is Roxy Paine. Defunct is originally a piece from Roxy’s exhibit, ”Conjoined, Defunct and Erratic” in Madison Square Park. Defunct now resides in Aspen Art Museum. Defunct is a stainless steel tree sculpture on the museum’s front lawn. Paine’s striking work seems to reflect the tension between nature and technology. The shiny, metallic tree doesn’t quite fit in with the surrounding aspens, but neither is it wholly out of place.


Rojo, Jaime. “Brooklyn Street Art.”Cutthroat Trout & “The Art Of Beeing” in Reno, Nevada, 18 Feb. 2014, www.brooklynstreetart.com/theblog/2014/02/18/ludo/.

This piece is called Enjoy the Violence by Ludo. This is the same Ludo I mentioned before. He takes the images of nature perverted by weaponry and the growing militarism of society. This piece is a rose with brass knuckles growing from it (in Ludo’s signature poison green).


Valic, Mojca. “Ludo – Amsterdam 2013 The Work of Paris Based Ludo, Often Called Nature’s Revenge, Connects the World of Plants and Animals with Our Tech… | Street Art | Pinterest | Street Art, Street Artists and Art.” Pinterest, Pinterest, www.pinterest.com/pin/391039180117449918/?lp=true.

This piece doesn’t have a name but it’s by Ludo. It was created in Amsterdam in 2013. It is a tree with bolts connecting it to a machine. Ludo in general interests me. All his artwork is amazing, but I’m especially attracted to the way he perceives natures interaction with modern technology.

Metropolitan Museum Visit

First off, the Met museum is incredibly huge and I really liked the display of artwork inside.I liked is that it makes you feel as if you’re apart of the time period that you’re looking at. On the down side it was so big, I sort of feared getting lost. It was a tad bit overwhelming.

I’m going to be comparing the renaissance artwork, Virgin and Child with Four Angels,Virgin and Child with Four Angels, Gerard David (Netherlandish, Oudewater ca. 1455–1523 Bruges), Oil on woodand the Baroque artwork, Virgin and Child.Virgin and Child, Bartolomé Estebán Murillo (Spanish, Seville 1617–1682 Seville), Oil on canvas

I chose these two because they seemed the most similar in style but they are both different in small ways. First off, the timings of production of both paintings are different. If a painting was made in the 15th to 16th century then it was a renaissance artwork. If a painting is made during the late 16th to 17th century then it was a baroque artwork. Both Renaissance and baroque emphasize religion and can put a lot of importance on women. Both artworks I chose is based on a virgin woman. Another difference is that Renaissance artworks did not completely depict human emotion, while Baroque art focused more on showing them.
As you can see, the Virgin and Child with Four Angels painting give more emphasis to religion with the addition of angels while the Virgin and Child painting is more simple and gives importance to the main feature of the painting.


Topic= I would love to explore the way nature and technology mix in art. Sort of how technology is overtaking nature and there are some (very few) art works that show that.

Thesis= No matter how much we try to ignore it. Technology is overtaking nature and its about time art is showing that.

  1. Defunct by Roxy Paine, 2004, Aspen Art Museum. 
  2. Volklingen by ludo, 2015, World Cultural Heritage Site.
  3.  Noname, by ludo, 2013, Amsterdam
  4. Enjoy the Violence, by ludo, 2012

5. Conjoined, Roxy Paine, 2007, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth


Chapter 2 Summary

The art of the ancient world allows us to understand the era and time in which it was originated. We were able to fully discuss and interpret the art of ancient Mesopotamia Egypt, Greece and Rome. Each region and time period had a different perception of humanity, deities, and the cycle of human life. Looking and formally analyzing ancient art is important because it reflects the society that creates them. Societies that without these art works, would be very difficult for us to understand. The symbolism, colors and materials can tell us a lot about the culture that produced it.

The ancient Egyptian art had some variations under the each succession but, overall had a similar portrayals of the rulers, the common people, the God and even the animals. The Palette of Narmer from 3000 BCE, served not only as a palette for aesthetic needs but also an opportunity to be reminded of the greatness of King Narmer. It is quite fascinating to see that Egyptians used art as a medium to preserve the glory of their rulers, who gave the people stability, wealth and most of all aspiration. In the palette, King Narmer is the larger figure, standing dominantly, showing his power through the staff in his hand and the slave/soldier of war he is holding by the head. King Narmer also seems to be receiving the crown of Lower Egypt from the falcon. This again goes to show his dominance in uniting the two regions, and creating one unified nation. This brings the concept of harmony, and social order into discussion because the Egyptians really revered living an honest and just life, as shown by the portrayal of after life in many Egyptian art work. This idea, and the unity they hoped to achieve in the after death with the Gods was central to the civilization. Egyptian art was different from Hellenistic and Roman art, in their depiction of humans. Also, the evolution of Greek and Roman art brought about many drastic changes in the portrayal of art itself.

When we first think of Greek art, our thought first goes to the elaborate and magnificent temples and building architecture developed by the ancient Greeks. They had developed very standard ways of constructing many places of worship, and other important building. In addition, Greek sculptures and stone work of human being show the understanding of human anatomy and structure. What the Egyptians portrayed as a stoic, rigid, and animated figure, the Greeks gave their human sculptures a more defined perspective of the human form. Even though it didn’t have an individualistic touch, early Greek art still gave a standard portrayal of the human body. For example, the Kouros constructed in 600 B.C.E. give the audience the correct human dimensions for the figure in the sculpture. The knee, the body muscles are well highlighted, and even the hair though not very realistic seems to have taken an effort to create, as each individual hair strand has a wave. This had more similarities to the stone sculptures of ancient Egypt than the classical periods of Greek and Rome. As we move towards classical period, human portrayal looked much more natural and had realistic facial expressions. For example, with eh Kritios Boy, though the facial expression still remains to be a bit dull, the body construction is very well realistic and natural.

Roman ancient art by far neared closer to the realistic portrayal of the actual human body, as much of their ideology was centered on the concept of humanism. The people, and even the deities, resembled a glorified human. This was unlike the ancient Egyptians where they depicted their Gods with animal heads and a rigid body. The Romans, glorified the human body through their artwork. Starting with the sculpture of Polykeitos in 450 B.C.E. who has this amazing athletic human body with well constructed human anatomy. The figure though lacked an individualistic touch to the face and a bland hair style, still outwardly portrayed a realistic human look. As we move forward we see the Dying Gaul, the portrait of Alexander the Great, the Seated Boxer, which all have a very realistic portrayal of the human body evidenced by the formation of the hair strands and the portrayal of the human body. The sculptors during this time took time to define the human musculature and present the body as realistically as possible.

Blog #8: Humanism in Greek Art

Humanism is the system or movement of human beings. In terms of art, humanism shifts the focus in where man becomes the agent for change. It emphasizes the value and individuality of humans. In Greek and Roman art, humanism is very common as it is the main focus in majority of the pieces of art. In Egyptian and Mesopotamian art, they focus more on a higher power that is greater than mankind where as in Greek and Roman art, they focus more on the human itself.

On the left we have the Sumerian art of the Standing male worshipper and on the right we have the Greek art of the Kouros of Kroisos from Anavysos. In the Sumerian art piece, it represents a religious standpoint.  The figure is a sign or a symbol of a higher power. The figure is covered and has detailed lines below (almost like a dress or a robe). In Mesopotamia, nudity was a sign of humility which is why the figure below isn’t nude. The eyes in the male worshipper piece are wide and distinct and is one of the first things that draws your eyes. In the Greek art piece of the Kouros of Kroisos from Anavysos, the figure has more features of a human than of a higher power. It has one foot in front of the other and is completely nude. For Greek, nudity was a sign of culture and pride. The men and boys that were sculpted all appeared nude as it was a way to show strength and power. The eyes in the pieces aren’t as distinctive as the male worshipper.  In both art pieces, they have very intricate waves and beads/braids to represent the bread on the Standing male worshipper and the hair on both the Kouros of Kroisos from Anavysos and the male worshipper. Both pieces are also proportionate in symmetry and are stiff.


Blog Post 7: Soul of a Nation

I chose Dana C. Chandlers, Fred Hampton’s Door. The formal properties we are suppose to look at are scale, medium, composition, and material. We don’t know the scale but the medium is acrylic paint on wood. Next is composition which there are 7 elements of. Color, form, shape, space, value, line, and texture. The color is forrest green, bright red, coppery brown, white and dull blue. The form is three dimensional. The shape is the shape of a door (with a nob and everything). I guess there’s a high value? The lines of the door are sharp with clean edges (horizontal and vertical). The scruff marks are also sharp. Lastly the texture is ruff because of the splintering wood.

The historical context is the original was created in 1970 while the one we see today was created in 1975. A second one was needed because the first one was stolen from the Boston exhibition. The second time Chandler used an actual door for a greater emotional impact. In 1967 Dana C. Chandler witnessed Boston police using violence to stop a peaceful protest. This even is what triggered his commitment to the Black Power Movement to effect social change. Fred Hampton’s Door 2 is a protest against the Chicago police’s killing of Fred Hampton. He was a young Black Panther who was shot in the head during a raid.

The subject matter is Art in the Age of Black Power. This door tells a tragic story of a life ended too short.

I chose this object because it was sort of hiding in the corner. It is what attracted me too it in the first place. Once I got a closer look and saw that it was a door I knew it was the one. Previously in my A.P Art class I had actually sculpted a door that can camouflage in my school. Then I read the little caption and… all that meaning behind one door is amazing. It had so much meaning that when it was originally stolen Dana C. Chandler actually made another one. Fred Hampton’s Door 2 relates to the rest of the exhibition because it is all about Black Power and how the blacks shouldn’t take this standing down. He commemorated a member of the Back Panther Party with his piece.

Blog Post 6, Brooklyn Museum Ancient World

I chose Cat and Mouse from the Egyptian Reborn: Art for Eternity Exhibit. The formal properties we are suppose to look at are scale, medium, composition, and material. The scale is 1/2 x 6 13/16 x 7/16 in. (8.9 x 17.3 x 1.1 cm). The mediums are limestone, and ink. Limestone is a popular medium which was used in Egypt. There are 7 elements of composition. Color, form, shape, space, value, line, and texture. The color of Cat and Mouse is sorta sepia rock (limestone) and black ink. The form is two dimensional (if you go according to the image presented). The shape is flat. There is a lot of negative space in the art piece because the background isn’t filled out. I guess there’s a high value? There’s horizontal, vertical, diagonal, curved, pointy lines. Lastly the texture is smooth except in a few spots where there are some ridges from the limestone. Artist unknown.

The historical context is it was created in 1295-1075 B.C.E. It’s somewhere from the XIX Dynasty to XX Dynasty and it is from the New Kingdom period. It is drawing of a standing cat on the left offering a feather fan and plucked animal feather to a seated female mouse (right). The mouse wears a long skirt and has a flower on her forehead. She holds a dish in her right hand, and is holds a flower (I think) and cloth (often held by pharaohs) in her left hand. The cat also holds a similar cloth. The mouse is seated on a folding stool with animal legs and covered with an animal hide with the tail hanging over the edge of the stool.

The subject matter is unknown but my guess is either something humorous or satire about the royals at that time. It’s now a long lost story.

I can relate this to what we learned in class because we’ve seen painting of animals, which we are suppose to understand that they are really depictions of humans.

Unit 1 Summary

Unit 1 was about the pedagogy and power, banking model, and formal analysis. The Banking Model is described as teachers simply passing on an idea to the students. The teachers talk and lecture while the students are quiet and receive the information. I have experienced this type of model many times in high school. Some teachers I had would not care to listen to anything the students had to say. They would think everything that they said was correct. I think this model has more negative aspects rather than positive. You might be able to learn something but it’s not the most effective and long-term method of teaching. I think its very important for teachers to engage and encourage their students to speak up in class. This helps a lot of students learn better. The pedagogical approach to any subject must be important when you want someone to learn. For example, if you’re teaching drawing you shouldn’t just put a fruits basket in front of the students and expect them to know how to draw. You would have to teach them the basics first.

Another thing we learned is formal analysis. Formal analysis is not only describing the art but also showing and understanding what the artist is trying to convey, visually. Everybody has different ways of looking at things so our own interpretation of art will have a play in what we think it means. When focusing on formal analysis, there are some characteristics we use: color, line, space and mass, scale. We also look at the composition of the art. Composition means how the artist combines all these factors in their work of art. We also use the historical context of an artwork. It relates to the things that happen during the time the art was made. It serves to give us a better understanding of the art and show why the artist decided to make this artwork.

It’s very interesting that you can learn so much about an artwork from its historical background. I never knew how to analyze an artwork before but after learning some basics on formal analysis it has become easier. When looking at the Titian Venus of Urbino, I noticed that a lot of warmer colors were used as opposed to cool or neutral colors. Colors like pink and red were used a lot. Another technique that was cool was looking at the way the artist catches your eye from the direction of lines. They guide your eyes intentionally from left to right. I personally thought that was interesting and cool how an artist can make you do that. Also, learning of the historical background of the painting really put it into a perspective of why the art was made.

Blog post 4: Formal Analysis

Formal analysis is how we can examine and understand art to the smallest details by seeing how the artist used their techniques to create their works. Using formal analysis involves things such as the composition, lines, color, and texture. Using these characteristics many artist use them to help us paint our own picture of what the artist is conveying. Composition refers to what we are first drawn to in the painting? Composition usually coexists with size, color and position; the bigger and brighter object placed right in the middle of the canvas usually will draw more attention to it than an oddly, darker placed object in the background. Line textures and darkness can also help deepen the formality of a painting by outlining different objects and creating a sense of depth. Color refers to the type of color palette the artist uses throughout his work. Is it a warm palette filled with reds, oranges and browns or is it colder with white and blues. Formal analysis helps us break down works and brings us to our own understandings of things from the theater to sculptures and to advertisements we see everyday.