css.php

Art History Bibliography

“Egyptian Art.” Khan Academy, Khan Academy, www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/ancient-mediterranean-ap/ancient-egypt-ap/a/egyptian-art. 

This article talks about how Egyptian art is not as naturalistic as Greek or the Renaissance art. It is more blocky, static, and strangely abstract. Egyptian art had a whole different purpose for their art. Most of Egyptian art was not intended to be seen. This art was supposed to be a personal entity of the owner. The art was supposed to provide the being to interact during the afterlife by using terrestrial objects such as the art. These arts were used to honor the dead.  Many of the art that is portrayed in the Musuem is taken from the elite and royal status. The glitz and glam follows to our idea of modern aesthetic. Yet we fail to realize that art from lower status was used for the same purpose as art for the upper status. For three-dimensional Egyptian art was aimed to produce the real world. They used different objects to give the idea of naturalism. While two-dimensional art aimed to provide the most representative aspects of each element. Registers are parallel lines that were used to separate each artistic figure from another one in a painting. Size was used to tell the hierarchy of an object. The bigger the object may be the more important they are. This article offers background information on what Egyptian art is used for and why it was even created in the first place. It is useful because it informs you that Egyptian art doesn’t have the same purpose as other art. Rather it is used for the dead to interact with the living. While creating my art piece it can help me focus more on the art rather than the glitz and glam because that wasn’t the purpose of Egyptian art. 

“Meet the Gilded Lady.” AMNH, www.amnh.org/explore/news-blogs/on-exhibit-posts/meet-the-gilded-lady. 

This article talks about the Gilded Lady who has been embalmed for more than 1,500 years ago. She is one of the most well-preserved mummies in the collection. Keeping mummies preserved meant limited access to see what’s in the inside of the coffin. The exterior details offered clues about the Gilded Lady. The Gilded Lady is covered with intricate linen bindings, gilded headdress, and painted facial features. The mummy dates from 30 BC–AD 395, a period when Egypt was a province of the Roman Empire. While the practice of mummification endured in Egypt, it was transformed by Roman influences. Before the Roman era, for example, mummies had been placed in wooden coffins, while the Gilded Lady is preserved in only linen wrappings and cartonnage, a papier-mâché-like material. Also absent are the hieroglyphics that decorated mummy coffins in earlier times. CT scans provided an inside look on how the mummy may look like and how it was mummified. Through the CT scans it was discovered that the mummy was approximately 40 years old and suffered from tuberculosis. She also had white lumps under her chin and skull which may be resign to keep the mummy odor free. The reason I read this article is because I found it interesting how they used CT scans to sketch out an image on how the Gilded Lady looked like. It offers my project to focus on the features from the Gilded Lady to create a realistic Egyptian person from that time frame. It’s useful because it will give the sense of realism. 

“Mummies in Egypt.” AMNH, www.amnh.org/exhibitions/mummies/mummies-in-egypt. 

This article is about mummies in Egypt. The article discusses the mummification process in Egypt. Mummification took place because it was considered a key step in a person’s journey to the afterlife. The mummification process took place by removing many of the internal organs, desiccating the body in a drying salt, and wrapping the preserved body in linen before placing it in a wooden coffin. Since grave robbing was a problem in Egypt many of the coffins were made from limestone. This made it harder for robbers to rob. Sarcophagus was used to keep the coffin and the mummy in place. Egyptians believed that organs and intestines should be preserved because they would be needed in the afterlife. The organs would be placed in canopic jars with removable top carved to represents the four sons of Horus. Egyptians believed that this protected the organs. Archaeologists also discovered multiple animals mummified. They believed that they would be used as offerings to the God’s. It offer’s my project background information on the purpose of the mummification process. It’s useful because it shows that how much Egyptians prioritize the way the mummification process was done. Although sarcophagus was used to keep the mummy in place finding that as a common product in nowadays would be a hard thing. 

 

Roehrig, Catharine H. “Egypt in the New Kingdom (ca. 1550–1070 B.C.).” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/nking/hd_nking.htm (October 2000) 

This article is about Egypt in the New Kingdom. Theban rulers began to drive the Hyksos kings (Dynasty 15) from the Delta. This was accomplished by Ahmose I. This led to the formation of the New Kingdom. The New Kingdom Pharoahs commanded unimaginable wealth. This was spent majority on to please the God Amun- re of Thebes. Dynasty 19 established a capital near Delta but Thebes still remained a cultural and art center. The Pharoahs built their temples in Thebes where they had a lot of religious texts. At the site of Dier-El Medina a lot of artistic artifacts are stored. This article offers my project information on where I can find the most creative art pieces in Egyptian time which would be The New Kingdom. This is useful because instead of wasting hours on trying to pick an art piece to focus/recreate I can pick and art piece from the New Kingdom because that was one of the things that the New Kingdom is known for. 

 

“Tutankhamun’s Tomb (Innermost Coffin and Death Mask).” Khan Academy, Khan Academy, www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/ancient-mediterranean-ap/ancient-egypt-ap/a/tutankhamuns-tomb. 

Tutankhamun’s tomb would be lost to history if it wasn’t discovered by the archaeologist Howard Carter in the Valley of the Kings.  By finding Tutankhamun’s tomb it gave us an insight on how the New Kingdom was performing. Tutankhamun’s father turned the religious attention of the kingdom to the worship of the god Aten, the sun disc. While Tutankhamen shifted the focus of the country’s worship back to the god Am. Tutankhamen died at the age of 18 but his death is unknown. When Howard Carter discovered Tutankhamen tomb’s he was welcomed with strange animals, gold, and statues. Tutankhamun’s sarcophagus (a box-like stone container) held not one but three coffins in which to hold the body of the king. The outer two coffins were crafted in wood and covered in gold along with many semiprecious stones, such as lapis lazuli and turquoise. The inner coffin, however, was made of solid gold. The image of the Pharoah is shown in his divine form in the after-life. The goddesses Nekhbet (vulture) and Wadjet (cobra), inlaid with semiprecious stones, stretch their wings across his torso. Beneath these goddesses are two more—Isis and Nephthys—etched into the gold lid.  Tutankhamen’s death mask is one of masterpieces of Egyptian art. This death mask is rested on top of the body. It is in the innermost coffin which is filled with gold. ). Tutankhamen is depicted wearing the striped nemes headdress (the striped head-cloth typically worn by pharaohs in ancient Egypt) with the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet depicted again protecting his brow. He also wears a false beard that further connects him to the image of a god as with the inner coffin. He wears a broad collar, which ends in terminals shaped as falcon heads. The back of the mask is covered with Spell 151b from the Book of the Dead, which the Egyptians used as a road map for the afterlife.  This particular spell protects the various limbs of Tutankhamun as he moves into the underworld. This is useful to my project because I was planning on creating the Tutankhamun’s mask. Although I cannot create it with real gold and expensive stones, I will try my best. As a kid whenever I looked at this mask it seemed way more feminine to me than masculine. Using the image provided on the website I will try to use the Tutankhamun’s mask image to create a more modern masculine version.

Annotated Bibliography

“Baroque Art, an Introduction.” Smart History, 17 Dec. 2018, www.smarthistory.org/a-beginners-guide to-baroque-art/
This article gives an overall history course on the Baroque period. Using this information will give the necessary background to set the paper proposal.

“Baroque period.” New World Encyclopedia, 17 Dec. 2018, www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Baroque_period
The facts in this article are also about the history of the Baroque period but are more detailed which will elaborate on this background information in my paper proposal.

“Baroque vs. Rococo: Similarities and Differences, Explained.” In Good Taste, 17 Dec. 2018, www.invaluable.com/blog/baroque-art-rococo-art/
The differences of the Baroque and Rococo periods are highlighted and explained. This article will give an understanding to the final stage of Baroque period.

Stechow, Wolfgang. “Definitions of the Baroque in the Visual Arts.” The American Society of Aesthetics, vol. 5, no. 2, 1946, www-jstor-org.ez- proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu/stable/pdf/425798.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3Ac0bc0e46251359f5497b 468886a954b3. Accessed 17 Dec. 2018.
Wolfgang digs deeper into the characteristics of the Baroque period. Particularly the proper way how defining the term baroque which also coincides with how baroque should be identified. When outlining the key components in the selected artworks, this article will be able to give a deeper analysis to the shared components.

Pijoan, Jose. “Romanesque Baroque.” The Art Bulletin, vol. 8, no. 4, 1926, www-jstor-org.ez- proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu/stable/pdf/3046523.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3Af3ef2c4683467544fbd 28940dc2cd82b. 17 Dec. 2018.
This article makes a point in claiming that different art period throughout history are often a reaction to its precedent art period and can show a blend of the itself and the precedent art period in the beginning and blend of itself and its subsequent art period. This main point can aid in following the time events of the Baroque period.

Annotated Bibliography; (Extracted from another post, I forgot to post the bib as a separate post)

(I forgot to post the annotated bibliography as a separate post and left it in my previous post which combined both the final project and the annotated bibliography, I’m very sorry!)

Bibliography: Museum Sites 

  1. “The Lamentation.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/2008.72/; accessed December 17, 2018, https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/2008.72/

This link is coming directly from The Met website and gives a brief catalogue description of The Lamentation. I will incorporate this into my final project by paraphrasing their descriptional analyses and keywords so I can easily distinguish features between Renaissance and Baroque art.

  1. “Saint Maurice.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2015/cranach-saint-maurice.

This link is also taken directly from The Met website. In the site, the author explains the significance of the exhibition which involved other works of art that were painted/made during the same time period and location. This allowed me to analyze the distinguishing features of the time and apply it to Saint Maurice. The website also had a YouTube video which helped me analyze the portrait even more.

  1. “Departure of the Amazons.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1976.100.6/; accessed December 16, 2018.

There was no specific museum site that helped me understand this painting. Instead, I used the generic Met catalogue description of the painting. It gave me the basic information I needed, such as the dimensions, the medium, the historical and political background, and the artist who painted it. It also listed some features I incorporated into my final project and used it to compare and contrast styles between this painting and other paintings.

Bibliography: Magazines/Journals/Articles

  1. https://www.metmuseum.org/pubs/bulletins/1/pdf/3257799.pdf.bannered.pdf

This is an extensive pdf article of The Merry Company on a Terrace. It was a really helpful addition to my final project because it nicely explained the background/history of the painter (Jan Steen) and why he incorporated himself into his own painting. In addition to that, the article also analyzes every single character in the painting in depth. One theme the author of the article focused on was the emotional intensity of the painting. This is one feature I incorporated into my final project and it was also a useful addition to the list of differences between Renaissance and Baroque art.

  1. http://www.artmuseums.com/giotto.htm#.XBw-Dy2ZN0s

This article layed out a detailed formal analysis of The Lamentation. Although the painting was different from the one in The Met, it provided me with more background historical details I did not comprehend at first. I only payed attention to the theme of the entire painting because there are many different alterations of this painting and most of them share a similar theme.

Annotated Bibliography

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Baroque Art and Architecture.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 10 Dec. 2018, www.britannica.com/art/Baroque-art-and-architecture.

My first source helps me define Baroque art and architecture through the Britannica Encyclopedia. It is useful in helping me define Baroque art through better terms and gives me a deeper understanding about that time period. I learned about it’s dramatic and exaggerated ways through this website.

Metmuseum.org, metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/437526.

This source was the online resource from the Metropolitan Museum of Art that shows the painting and gives its description.

Metmuseum.org, metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/437986.

This source was the online resource from the Metropolitan Museum of Art that shows the painting and gives its description.

Final Project Bibliography

Hemingway, Colette, and Seán Hemingway. “The Art of Classical Greece (ca. 480–323 B.C.).” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tacg/hd_tacg.htm (January 2008)

“The middle of the fifth century B.C. is often referred to as the Golden Age of Greece, particularly of Athens. Significant achievements were made in Attic vase painting. Most notably, the red-figure technique superseded the black-figure technique, and with that, great strides were made in portraying the human body, clothed or naked, at rest or in motion.” This quote gives a brief explanation as to what Humanism is and how the Greeks began portray in their works of art. As was mentioned, Humanism focuses on the physical human body whether their is clothing involved or not. This essay relates to my project because it gives a look into the timeline of Greek art and when Humanism began to be showcased, and its evolution over the different time periods.

Hemingway, Colette, and Seán Hemingway. “Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/haht/hd_haht.htm (April 2007)

I chose to use this essay because it goes onto explain the Hellenistic Age and how it came about. It gives details on Alexander the Great and the adaptations that were taken on during this era. This essay also explains that the Hellenistic kings were endorsers of the arts, and more than often paid for lavish paintings and sculptures to showcase their wealth. Then it is explained that during the Hellenistic age, the arts took a different turn and developed their own “spin” on Humanism in which it became richly diverse in subject matter, and representations of Greek gods took on a different form. For example, the main reason I chose this essay is because it goes on to discuss the Eros who is the Greek personification of Love, takes on the form of a young child. Lastly, the essay goes on to explain that during this era we see increased use of children as the subject matter who are considered conventional inhabitants.

Nichols, Marden. “Contexts for the Display of Statues in Classical Antiquity.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/disp/hd_disp.htm (April 2010)

“Wealthy citizens incorporated features of imperial portraiture into statues of themselves (14.130.1). Roman governors were honored by portrait statues in provincial cities and sanctuaries.” This section of this essay explains that during the Augustan period, while we do see many statues and works of art devoted to Augustus, we begin to see the higher class citizens paying for portraits of themselves. This quote also touches on portraiture which is prominent during this time period, and this helped evolved humanism. Portraiture shows realistic emotions, and also during this time period we begin to see more realistic body types for an average Roman. I chose this essay for my project because it shows the evolution of humanism, and one of the pictures I have decided to discuss is from this time period. The picture is an example of the wealthy class paying for a portrait statue that not only showcases wealth but also shows the evolution of Humanism through the boy; it is a clear example of portraiture.

“Bronze Statue of Eros Sleeping.” Khan Academy, Khan Academy, www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/greek-art/hellenistic/v/enamored.

This is a Khan academy article and its main focus is on the Bronze statue of Eros Sleeping. This article, just as the ones mentioned earlier, discusses the Hellenistic Age and the shift in works of art. Alexander the Great was so enthralled with Greek art that during his reign he endorsed art works that were similar, but were an evolved version of humanism. To add to that, the article mentions that the Hellenistic period introduced “accurate characterization of age”.  In this period we see more artworks depicted of children either as part of mythology or in genre scenes playing with animals. I think this is a useful article for my project because it further validates the usefulness of children in the ancient world. This article shows that children were best represented in the Hellenistic era as a demonstration for humanism. In having works of art depicting children in playful scenes, it accurately demonstrates humanism with the enhancement of activities that children do everyday.

Final project- annotated bibliography

Jeremy Herisson

Camille Gajewski “A Brief History of Women in Art.” Khan              Academy, Khan Academy,                                                              www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-history-                      basics/tools-understanding-art/a/a-brief-                                    history-of-women-in-art.

This is an online source which serves as an excellent guide for understanding how women have been represented in art history. As shown in the title, the article immediately introduces the idea of women also being underrepresented and misrepresented in art. All three of these aspects are fundamental concepts within my final project. Specifically, my essential question was regarding the representation of women in art. By selecting four separate works which highlight females, I am hopeful in discovering common themes among these works. Additionally, Camille presents an excellent article which describes much of what I am hoping to find in art work. This includes gender inequalities and the overall challenges women faced during these classic periods. These themes are often reflected in art especially when considering how these women are represented. This source serves as a possible aid for my project due to the pure substance and amount of information. These key themes have been drawn already and therefore are laid out in an organized manner.

 

Hessel, Katy. “8 Women Artists Who Influenced the                            Renaissance and Baroque.” 11 Artworks, Bio &                        Shows on Artsy, Artsy, 20 Dec. 2016,                                            www.artsy.net/article/artsy-editorial-these-women-                artists-influenced-the-renaissance-and-baroque.

Katy Hessel writes a truly interesting article regarding influential female artists within the renaissance and baroque periods. While the topic of this article is slightly difference from my project, they both cover women  within the renaissance and baroque periods. This is important because again I am provided with insight as to what life was life for these women. In addition, we are presented with the struggles these artists faced. For example, we learn the major sexual meaning behind the paintings that men completed during this time period. Hessel writes about this and recognizes that female artist were simply often associated with sex. Unless these were images of saints are god like figures, sexual themes were often highlighted for male pleasure. Overall, these are excellent examples of artwork featuring women during this time period. This allows me to be able to compare the photos that I gathered and compare them.

 

Nicole Myers, The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History,                           www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/19wa/hd_19wa.htm.

This is a post which is featured under the MET’s timeline of art history. The beautiful detailed article is exactly what I need in for my final project. The substance of this article deals with women artist in 19th century France and covers a large are of inequalities women faced. The difference compared to the other articles is the types of paintings these women wanted to paint. Often they were not allowed to create certain types of art work due to these inequalities. In addition, they had no say in regards to how men presented these images of women. The author provides such rich knowledge with respect to impressive personal accounts. This includes the writings of past females who personally faced these challenges.

Final Essay Annotated Bibliography (Second Topic)

Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/18.2.4/

 

Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/05.30/

Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/198766

These 3 pieces offer history to my project. With these sources I can better understand the conditions in which these pieces were built and why they were built. It gives us explanations on who these people were and what they have done to get statues built of them. It also helps because each one of these pieces of work come from a different region so we have more pieces to compare from for our project to see differences and similarities.

Roman Portrait Sculpture: Republican through CONSTANTINE

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ropo/hd_ropo.htm

This post gives a lesson on the importance of sculptures and it talks about how they come to fruition. This tells us about how these statues were typically made to celebrate a noted military achievement, usually in connection with an official triumph, or to commemorate some worthy political achievement, such as the drafting of a treaty. We also learn about how bad emperors usually did not get one or they got their sculptures destroyed.

Roman Egypt Essay

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/regy/hd_regy.htm

This was is really important because it ties a connection between the Roman and the Egyptian pieces of work and how they are influenced from each other. Rome’s rule over Egypt officially began with the arrival of  Octavian in 30 B.C., following his defeat of Marc Antony and Cleopatra in the battle at Actium. It talks about how once Rome took over a new fascination with its ancient culture became influential. Obelisks and Egyptian-style architecture and sculpture were installed in Roman fora. This led to the changing and development of a new Egyptian style of sculptures and a new Roman style.

Final Essay Annotated Bibliography (Second Topic)

Final Essay Annotated Bibliography

Topic –

           Tying pieces we have gone over throughout the semester, as well as statues and works of art that I have come across from the met museum together to come to a conclusion for the overall question of if everything being produced by different artists and sculptors is in some way all related and trying to point to a larger picture.

The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/247173.

The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/248140.

The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/251050.

              These citations bring you to a more in-depth description of the photos that I gathered from going to the Met Museum. They include the statue of Eirene, the marble statue of the lion, and the bronze horse. Although at first glance these three pictures may seem to have no correlation to each other, when inserted into the grand scheme of things that will be unveiled in the entirety of my final, all will begin to come together in an eye-opening revelation of sorts

David, Ariel. “Linking the Past and the Present Through Art.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 7 Sept. 2010,      www.nytimes.com/2010/09/08/arts/08iht-rartisrael.html.

           This source is used to give backstory on the question I have presented. It delves into the ways that art ties in with history, and how it continues to do so. It also goes on to give examples of how many things throughout different eras are in turn connected to one another, and how they symbolize different things.

By. “The 14 Most Unintentionally Terrifying Statues in the World.” Cracked.comwww.cracked.com/article_19155_the-14-most-unintentionally-terrifying-statues-in- world.html.

           Lastly, we have this source that adds a bit of flair to the already conspiracy driven essay. It goes on to explain many terrifying works of art that populate the world, and how in turn they may be related to events that have already happened, or that are in the midst of happening. Most seem to be just myth driven pieces, but others could definitely be the nail that drives every point together.

Annotated Bibliography

Topic: Animals in ancient art and the role of animals in depicting people, settings, and period of artworks.

Thesis: Animals have played a significant role on enhancing the way we perceive beings in
ancient artworks.

“Last Judgement of Hunefer, from His Tomb.” Khan Academy, Khan Academy, www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/ancient-mediterranean-ap/ancient-egypt-ap/v/judgement-in-the-presence-of-osiris-hunefer-s-book-of-the-dead.

I will use this citation to analyze the use of animal heads in depicting ancient Egyptian gods and their significance of their representation in the judgment to afterlife.  I will deconstruct the meaning as to why each god has a different animal head representing their roles in the afterlife.

“Venus of Urbino by Titian at Uffizi Gallery Florence.” Visit Uffizi, www.visituffizi.org/artworks/venus-of-urbino-by-titian/.

With this source, I will explain the significance of the dog in Venus of Urbino and why it is at the foot of the bed in this painting.  I will explain the correlation of the young naked woman and the reason as to why this painting would be a good gift for a young, newlywed couple.

“The Significance of the Horse in Ancient Greece.” It’s All Greek, It’s All Greek, 29 Apr. 2015, itsallgreeklondon.wordpress.com/2014/10/22/the-significance-of-the-horse-in-ancient-greece/.

Horses are commonly depicted in ancient Greek art.  I will discuss the significance of horses during this time period, while also explaining why they were so often carved into so many works.

Annotated Bibliography

The Atlantic Monthly; August 1963; Letter from a Birmingham Jail; The Negro Is Your Brother; Volume 212, No. 2; pages 78 – 88.

This article was a letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. The letter discusses the urgency to have a nonviolent protest. He stresses the many reasons as to how important having a nonviolent protest would be. This article is useful to my topic because Martin Luther King Jr. is one of the pioneers who helped contributed to black people having the same rights as white people.

 

Bortolot, Alexander Ives. “The Transatlantic Slave Trade.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/slav/hd_slav.htm (October 2003)

This essay discussed about the transatlantic slave trade. It was an exchange mainly between Africa, Europe, and America. As America was forming they needed more laborers. Europe was constantly conquering and needed slaves as well. Slaves were brought through the Atlantic ocean from Africa to Europe to America. Black people had no say as to what they wanted to do. They were treated like objects and properties instead of human beings. This essay is related to my topic because it discussed the struggles that black people went through.

 

X, Malcolm. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements  https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ShfNyQrAa-YC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=malcolm+x+and+racism&ots=BA-eMqObLI&sig=SvyLqzvGHAAfy1IBpWq_o-Afua8#v=onepage&q=malcolm%20x%20and%20racism&f=false

This book by Malcolm X discuss some of the important speeches that he wrote. He discusses the involvement that he will be in regarding human rights for black people. He also discusses the meaning of a revolution. This book is relevant to my topic because Malcolm X helped black people gain the freedom and help preserve through the struggle even though it was in a violent way.

 

Clayton, Dewey M. “Black Lives Matter and the Civil Rights Movement: A Comparative Analysis of Two Social Movements in the United States.” Journal of Black Studies 49.5 (2018): 448-80. Web.

This article depicts a comparison between the Black Lives Matter Movement and the Civil Rights Movement. In the 1960s, African Americans were fighting to have racial equality as white people. In today’s time, African Americans are now fighting from police brutality against white police officers. In both movements black people had to fight and are still fighting to get the justice that they deserve as human beings. This article relates to my topic in that it talks about the struggles that black people have gone through and are still going through.

 

Davis Y., Angela. Women, Race, & Class  https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=74QzFiv1w10C&oi=fnd&pg=PA30&dq=angela+davis+and+race&ots=HqEu78QMt0&sig=NOOdacGfAvIYXw89RgCC_Sac2vM#v=onepage&q=angela%20davis%20and%20race&f=false

This book discusses the Anti-Slavery movement and women. The anti-slavery movement is an abolishment society. Men who were free joined together to create this movement. White women eventually decided to join to show that they were more than just housewives. They wanted have rights just like black people. This is relevant to my topic because it discusses about African American hardships.