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Final Project: The True use and Influence of Architecture Throughout Societies

From the 20th Century to modern day civilization, societies from all around the globe have constantly endured their share of hardships. For example, in the ’40s the world experienced the horrific nature of The Holocaust. After years of fighting with the Germans, the end result was an utter catastrophe. Buildings were destroyed, homes turned to ash, and millions murdered. It took decades to rebuild what was once lost, but yet the job was finished wholeheartedly. Due to architects and their projects, new buildings were built and as everything was being brought back slowly, hope was restored to the people. After WWII, comes the rise of the Cold War. As a result of the Cold War, economies plummeted and certain societies were destroyed. For example, the society of Yugoslavia was in shambles. However, the Utopian project was created to rebuild through architecture and restore the light in the souls of the people. Nothing more is desired than to live harmoniously amongst each other with the eradication of violence. That is what architecture has and is continuously trying to provide society with. In its purest form, architecture provides a certain influence on society through its intersection with individualistic creativity. This concept of art is used worldwide in an ongoing attempt to create drastic changes in modern civilization and in the minds of the general public. Through the architectural genius of Bodys Isek Kingelez “City Dreams,” the project known as “Toward a Concrete Utopia: Yugoslavia,” and from public architecture such as the fallen Twin Towers (now known as One WTC), the world is in an attempt to move towards a better future.

Bodys Isek Kingelez is a self-taught Congolese artist who decided to bring a pure fantasy into a reality. His “City Dreams” collection consists of vibrant and elaborate cities that are made from paper and cardboard (Wiesenberger). Kingelez dedicated his buildings to cities, companies, countries, civic infrastructure, and intergovernmental organizations (Wiesenberger). Much of his work actually represents the city and country in which he grew up in, as well as, future utopian communities. For example, the project known as Ville De Sete 3009 is a projection of a fictive metropolis (Wiesenberger) where doctors and police are not needed (MoMA).

Ville De Sete 3009. The color and vibrancy of the buildings create a sense of tranquility and peace. Each section of this piece has its own unique design to it, making it a place for everyone to possibly enjoy in the future.

Other exceptional and profoundly artistic pieces that Kingelez created was the U.N. (1995) and the Scientific Center of Hospitalisation the SIDA (1991) (MoMA). The U.N. piece was created to “attest the organization’s global peacekeeping efforts and the artist’s own sense of civic responsibility” (MoMA). It represents a peaceful future, in which nations from around the world come together to create a united society. No wars, just peace. The Scientific Center of Hospitalisation of SIDA was created in response to the spread of AIDS in his country. Kingelez himself was quite intrigued with world events and social issues (MoMA) which acted as a prime inspiration in his creations. “His work explores urgent questions around urban growth, economic inequity, how communities and societies function, and the rehabilitative power of architecture—issues that resonate profoundly today” (MoMA). In the artist’s words, he imagined “a better, more peaceful world” (MoMA). People who walk by this exhibit in the Museum of Modern Art hardly recognize the purity it brings and the hope it establishes. When I first experienced this exhibit, I was in awe. A sudden wave of serenity washed over me, and in my mind, I pictured a better future filled with peace.

The U.N. 1995

 

Architecture not only inspires, but it transforms the world as well. Societies have endured countless wars and total destruction, but what brings it back from the brink is the use of architecture. The Republic of Yugoslavia is a perfect example of the true use of architecture. After the Cold War, everything was in shambles. However, architects who participated in the Concrete Utopian Project from 1948-1980 “responded to contradictory demands and influences, developing a postwar architecture both in line with and distinct from the design approaches seen elsewhere in Europe and beyond” (MoMA). This project explores “themes of large-scale urbanization, technology in everyday life, consumerism, monuments and memorialization, and the global reach of Yugoslav architecture” (MoMA). Without these wonderful artistic minds, Yugoslavia would not be living up to its own potential. Some might say architecture nowadays is all about becoming the new face of a magazine (MoMA/Youtube). They wouldn’t be wrong. However, those who would say that are not entirely correct. Yes, architecture is a competition, but it is also the foundation of the future. Without architecture, the world would be archaic. It’s beautiful to see what was once destroyed, to be back up on its feet again. Citizen of Yugoslavia never would have believed that their city would be restored back to glory.

 

“Third Way” Architecture

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Image result for toward a concrete utopia architecture in yugoslavia

Image result for toward a concrete utopia architecture in yugoslavia

These structures represent a glowing new world. One in which everyone can enjoy and have stored in memory.

Now, one of the most prominent pieces of public architecture, in my opinion, is the fallen but never forgotten Twin Towers. On September 11, 2001, a horrific act of terrorism flew two planes into the Twin Towers in New York City. Before these towers were destroyed, the architectural brilliance that went into it is beyond anyone’s wildest dreams. “Manhattan’s World Trade Center was a triumph of human imagination and will. Completed in 1973, the towers stood at 110 stories each, accommodating 50,000 workers and 200,000 daily visitors in 10 million square feet of space” (History.com). It was New Yorks most famous tourist attraction and symbolized “America’s–steadfast devotion to progress and the future” (History.com). If someone were to visit New York, from a plane these towers could be seen. That is when someone would know they are in New York City. Some would even use these towers to orient themselves in the hustle and bustle of the city. The World Trade Center was a “concept of world peace through trade” (History.com). It was not only a symbol of the future, but it was a symbol of triumph as well. Even though the towers are gone, a new World Trade Center stands in its place. It stands mighty and strong, commemorating the fallen and showing the world that America and New York cannot be brought down. There is resiliency in the architecture of this building and hope of a new age.

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Twin Towers before the attack on 9/11
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1 WTC Present Day

I chose architecture as my topic because it represents something unique for every individual. For one it might represent hope, for another, it could represent bravery or courage. No matter the representation, architecture affects every person differently. It’s important to understand the true nature and effect it has on society because, without this piece of creativity and art, society becomes uncultured. Through the architectural genius of Bodys Isek Kingelez “City Dreams,” the project known as “Toward a Concrete Utopia: Yugoslavia,” and from public architecture such as the fallen Twin Towers (now known as One WTC), the world is in an attempt to move towards a better future.

Bibliography

Art, The Museum of Modern, director. Toward a Concrete Utopia:           Architecture in Yugoslavia, 1948-1980YouTube, YouTube, 10           July 2018, www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2S0bBTHu-8.

“Bodys Isek Kingelez: City Dreams.” Lee Bontecou. Untitled. 1959 |          MoMA, www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/3889?locale=en.

“Toward a Concrete Utopia: Architecture in Yugoslavia, 1948–                   1980.” Lee Bontecou. Untitled. 1959 | MoMA,                                         www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/3931

Wiesenberger, Robert. “Bodys Isek Kingelez: City Dreams.” Art                 Papers, www.artpapers.org/bodys-isek-kingelez-city-dreams/.

“World Trade Center .” History.com, A&E Television Networks,                   www.history.com/topics/landmarks/world-trade-center.

 

Annotated Bibliogprahy

“Bodys Isek Kingelez: City Dreams.” Lee Bontecou. Untitled. 1959 | MoMA,                          www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/3889?locale=en.

From the information provided to me through MoMA, I have a clearer and better understanding of the nature behind “City Dreams.” Bodys Isek Kingelez wanted to create a nation in which everyone can dream of a better future. This utopian society explores the urgency of urban growth, economic inequity, the functions of society, and the rehabilitative power of architecture. This source provides my project with information on how Kingelez creates his masterpieces and the ideology behind this utopian nation.

Wiesenberger, Robert. “Bodys Isek Kingelez: City Dreams.” Art Papers,                              www.artpapers.org/bodys-isek-kingelez-city-dreams/.

This article provides my project with Kingelez’s inspiration for his beautiful collection of utopian societies. It talks about his history and gives an explanation of each construction. The materials he used and why each piece looks the way it does. This article also provides a brief look into where Kingelez comes from, what inspired his creations, as well as, who inspired him.

“Toward a Concrete Utopia: Architecture in Yugoslavia, 1948–1980.” Lee                           Bontecou. Untitled. 1959 | MoMA, www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/3931

Due to the Cold War and the Allies, Yugoslavia was essentially nothing but a memory. Buildings were turned into ash and society was broken to its core. However, the project to overturn Yugoslavia was a chance to restore hope in the lives of citizens. As new architecture was built, the country of Yugoslavia was experiencing its new found glory. The economy was rising and so was tourism. From this source provided to me by MoMA, I experienced a brief look into the minds of the architects and the theories behind the creations.

Art, The Museum of Modern, director. Toward a Concrete Utopia: Architecture in            Yugoslavia, 1948-1980YouTube, YouTube, 10 July 2018,                                                   www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2S0bBTHu-8.

From the curators of the exhibition, a new light is brought upon the architecture of post-war Yugoslavia. It is shown to me that nowadays architecture is based on getting on the front cover of a magazine. However, this video has portrayed architecture as a gateway towards a better future for a broken society. To truly understand the meaning of architecture for postwar or oppressed societies, one must look from a cultural perspective.

“World Trade Center .” History.com, A&E Television Networks,                                            www.history.com/topics/landmarks/world-trade-center.

The day the Twin Towers were built, was the day the world turned in fascination. These tall standing towers brought a new light into the eyes of not only New Yorkers but to the people of the world. To many, these towers represented resiliency (1993 bombing), a new and upcoming economy, and power. When you saw the Twin Towers, that is when you knew you entered the city of New York. Although these towers were and still is a symbol of power and courage, it can still be seen to some as a western threat. This source provides me with the history, meaning, and construction of the towers and what it meant to the people who watched them being built. It also provides me with information on how the events of 9/11 not only affected friends and families of people inside the buildings, but how it affected everyone worldwide.

 

 

My MET Visit

My first experience at the Metropolitan Museum was nothing short of fascinating. The moment I walked up to the building, I was amazed not only by its size but by the history that I knew was inside. As I walked in and started looking around, I got lost in the first ten minutes. Once I found my way to the exhibits that I needed, I was simply in awe of all the beauty and history at my disposal. My first look was towards the Renaissance paintings. What caught my eye was the “Holy Face” painting by Gerard David.

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With this painting, there is a sense of stability and serenity. Seeing as this piece is named “Holy Face,” one would expect a sense of serenity to come out of it. Other aspects of this painting that differentiates it from Baroque styled art would be that it shows a calm nobility, it’s idealized, has clear light, uninterrupted contours and is more reserved. It is portrayed as a still type of piece where we can clearly see the intentions of the subject in question. There is no immediate movement in which we can interpret. However, Baroque styled art consists of a different type of agenda. Take for example the “Madonna and Child with Saints Francis and Dominic and Angels,” painted by Giulio Procaccini.

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From this painting, it is seen that there is a certain emotional intensity being represented, as well as, a moment in time. Through the concept of “moment in time,” it is meant that this image is caught in the moment. Due to a constant energy and movement, the painter was able to represent the subjects as in the moment. Baroque art, which includes this piece, has a tendency to constantly consist of real and not idealized images that are very involving and close. A lot of diagonals are involved, as well as, dynamism. The effects of the light really draw in an audience because it truly puts an emphasis on the subjects being shown. The color scheme creates a dynamic of drama and importance to certain aspects as well.

Renaissance and Baroque art are very similar in subject matter, however, they both have a very different style in portraying the subject matter at hand.

Project Outline

Thesis Statement: Architecture in its purest form provides a certain influence on society through its intersection with individualistic creativity. This concept of art is used worldwide in an ongoing attempt to create drastic changes in modern civilization and in the minds of the general public. Through the architectural genius of Bodys Isek Kingelez “City of Dreams,” the exhibition known as “Toward a Concrete Utopia: Yugoslavia,” and from public architecture such the WTC and UN building, the world is in an attempt to move towards a better future.

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ARTIST: Bodys Isek Kingelez
TITLE: U.N.
DATE: 1995
MUSEUM: MoMA (Museum of Modern Art)

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ARTIST: Bodys Isek Kingelez
TITLE: Ville De Sete 3009
DATE: 2000
MUSEUM: MoMA (Museum of Modern Art)

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ARTIST: Bodys Isek Kingelez
TITLE: Ville Fantome
DATE: 1996
MUSEUM: MoMA (Museum of Modern Art)

Statement: These three pieces from the “City Dreams” collection represents a hope towards a future society living in unity and peace. A society where expression and freedom are celebrated through color. Where there is no war or conflict.

Image result for zlatibor hotel serbia by Svetlana Kana Radevic
ARTIST: Svetlana Kana Radevic
TITLE: Zlatibor Hotel, Serbia
DATE: 1981
MUSEUM: MoMA (Museum of Modern Art)

Image result for podgorica hotel montenegro svetlana kana radevic
ARTIST: Svetlana Kana Radevic
TITLE: Podgorica Hotel, Montenegro
DATE: 1967
MUSEUM: MoMA (Museum of Modern Art)

Statement: These architectural pieces were built post-war in an attempt to rebuild the Yugoslavian society and provide a sense of hope to a better future. Their fast pace in rebuilding shows a resiliency towards the abuse of power and the courage to stand right back up.

 

Final Project Topic

My topic for the final project is on Bodys Isek Kingelez’s “City of Dreams.”

I chose this as my topic because his artwork is not only inspiring for architectural purposes but also gives contemporary society headway in constructing the future for later generations. Kingelez’s artwork allows young generations to have limitless dreams.

Unit 2 Summary

Throughout the course, we have discussed various forms of culture that part takes in art history. It ranges from artworks in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia to artwork in Ancient Greece and Rome. Each era provided their society with a certain influence in day to day activities. For example, Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia had a society filled with a god worshiping civilization, meanwhile, Ancient Greece and Rome had more of an interest towards the incorporation of humanism in their artwork. Despite their great sense of polarity, each generation has a substantial amount of similarity between them. However, due to differences in ideology, the artwork in each era consists of contradicting principles.

Bouncing between each art period, it can clearly be seen at how different each society was. Starting from Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, much of their artwork consisted of worship towards god-like figures or deities. In their culture, looking up to a higher power was their answer in regards to everything in life. There had to be a God in which to eulogize. The afterlife was also a huge concept in which the people of Ancient Egypt highly praised. That is why it was constantly assimilated in the artwork of the Egyptians. Society during this time was also extremely based on class and money. For example, the concept of hierarchy can be seen in the piece known as The Standard of Ur. When looked upon closely, there are three levels that represent life differently. Within each level, you can see a portrayal of how certain people lived the life that they did. The most lower level portrays the subjects as slaves working for their master, delivering something like a gift for their god. The upper level shows a being larger than the rest of the subjects who breaks the barrier of the upper border. In Egyptian society, a God is commonly represented in art as the largest being visible, which explains the unusually large figure in this art piece.  This God is presented as the almighty being, while all his subjects are kneeling and sitting before him. As previously stated, the Egyptians took great lengths into depicting a huge part of their culture into their artwork, of which is the appraisal of deities and god-like representations.

While the ancient Egyptians took their time in depicting Gods and worshipers, the Romans and Greeks had a much different idea of what should be incorporated into their artwork. The Romans and Greeks believed in the concept of humanism. This is when art is primarily based on human-like structures rather than God-like in order to convey the reality of being human. An example of humanism in the culture of the Romans and Greeks would be the statue of Kouros. As stated in my previous blog post, This is an ancient sculpture representing the nude male youth in an upright stature. In Greek, the name Kouros even means ” youth, boy, especially of noble rank.”  The Kouros statue shows a nude male standing straight on both feet, one foot forward, and one foot backward. Anatomically when standing this way, it is quite uncomfortable, however, this was how the ideal male youth was depicted. It is also portrayed as nude because, in the Greek culture, nudity was deemed as prideful and as showing a sense of unimaginable strength.

From the creation of the Kouros figurine, comes the creation of the Kritios Boy and Polykleitos. As time went by, the standard of what a male should look like increased in stature. Broader shoulders were being depicted, as well, as a stronger core. The stance of the figure also changed since the Kouros. The Kourous had a very rigid stance, more of uncomfortable. The Polykleitos, on the other hand, had a very loose stance with one leg bent.

Another huge concept in which the Romans and Greeks have integrated into their artwork is human portraiture. This was a concept in which they believed that the human face should be shown as it is. The flaws of the face were specifically targeted in creating a bust.

With all these differences come subtle similarities between the two eras of artwork. Some of these similarities include the portrayal of individuals that symbolize a sort of power for the rest of civilization, diverging only in the way it is presented. One civilization presents it in the way of the Gods, and the other civilization presents it in the way of warriors, nudity or kings. Despite the differences or similarities, each piece of artwork has a great influence on modern day society. It has shaped the way we think, create, and utilize are artistic talent. Much of modern art has evolved from the basics of the Ancient world and it is amazing to understand the artistic evolution presented before me. Human creation will continue to learn from past artwork, and society will continue to be blessed with masterpieces.

Image result for kouros, kritios boy, and polykleitos       Image result for kouros

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Humanism and Art

The study of humanism is to understand the quality of human life. It’s a system of thought used constantly throughout the artistic culture where its main focus is on humans and their values, capacities, and worth. Humanism can be used in literature, art, and even in civilization, however, the Greek and Romans have made this concept their central focus in art and in life. In the Greek and Roman culture, when it comes to art, may it be the being of a man or woman, the focus is shifted upon the anatomy and pure physicality of that being. Individuality is clearly expressed through each line drawn of chiseled within, as well as, uniqueness. Both, the artist’s individuality is expressed along with the artist’s subject. In comparison, Mesopotamia and Egyptian art focus on the power of the deities, ancient civilization, and God-like representations. The Greek and Romans attention was highly diverted towards the physicality of the human individual.

From Mesopotamia and Egyptian art, comes The Standard of Ur. This is a small trapezoidal box with two sides. Each side is covered with figurative representations and mosaics of ancient life. When looked upon closely, there are three levels that represent life differently. The most lower level portrays the subjects as slaves working for their master, delivering something like a gift for their god. The upper level of The Standard of Ur shows a being larger than the rest of the subjects who breaks the barrier of the upper border. In Egyptian society, a God is commonly represented in art as the largest being visible, which is explains the unusually large figure in this art piece.  This God is presented as the almighty being, while all his subjects are kneeling and sitting before him.

Image result for the standard of ur

Although the tablet allows current society to take a quick look into past civilization and its views on culture, the Greek and Romans had a different belief of what art should depict. They thought that art should be more human-based rather than God-like to express the reality of being human. An example of this would be the statue of Kouros. This is an ancient sculpture representing the nude male youth in an upright stature. In Greek, the name Kouros even means ” youth, boy, especially of noble rank.”  The Kouros statue shows a nude male standing straight on both feet, one foot forward, and one foot backward. Anatomically when standing this way, it is quite uncomfortable, however, this was how the ideal male youth was depicted. It is also portrayed as nude because, in the Greek culture, nudity was deemed as prideful and as showing a sense of unimaginable strength. As noticed before, Kouros is standing up straight, but also has a very stiff and rigid stance to him.

This was believed to be the way of humanism in Greek and Roman culture as opposed to Egyptian culture that pertains to a constant higher power or worshiping.

The Brooklyn Museum

PART 1

From the Ancient World exhibit in the Brooklyn Museum, I chose the “Bird Woman” figurine from the 37th Century B.C.E. Just by looking at this statue, there were a couple of details that stood out to me. For example, the face has a similar structure to a birds beak, and the arms are unusually long. They are gracefully up in the air and have the possibility of representing wings. At the tip of the arms, the hands seem to display fingerlike structures. The “Bird Woman” is a very unique piece because it incorporates both a womanlike anatomy and a birdlike. The color is of copper tone and seems to be made up of clay. Its figure is very curvy as if the expectations of a woman at that point in time was to look like that. The artist also included the breasts of a woman. The height of the figurine is no taller than the height of a coffee cup.

After exploring the exhibit, I wanted to learn more about the figurine. After some research, I found out that the bottom half of the figure is actually a representation of a long white skirt covering the legs of the woman. That is why it looks as if the woman has no lower half. It is still unknown to this day if the sculpture represents a goddess or a woman.  I guess that part is up for interpretation.

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PART 2

After the Ancient World exhibit, I got a chance to look at Brooklyn Museum’s Soul of a Nation exhibit. A lot of the pieces that I saw have some sort of political agenda, much of which relates to today’s current events. Even though these pieces were created around the 70’s, it’s quite sad how they can relate to problems in the world today. There is still a huge issue with oppression, discrimination, and inequality in our nation which should ultimately be fixed. I chose the piece known as “All Power to the People” by Faith Ringgold. This was an interesting choice for me because I noticed that at the bottom of the piece it says, “Free all political prisoners.” I pictured this as an art piece created in today’s society and the kind of response it would receive. Due to the fact that most of New York’s society is democratic, the response that this piece would get is a positive one.

When I saw the words “free all political prisoners,” I pictured a society oppressed by the government and their power plays. A society that has had enough with being used in politician’s games for power. A lot of people feel the same way today about the way the government acts. Another thing that was quite compelling is the color scheme of the piece. The background is red, the words are black, the figures are black, but the eyes and the clothing are green. Also, the guns are grey. The red background could symbolize the blood of the people and the black could symbolize the seriousness of the situation presented. The man, woman, and child all have a weapon of some sort colored grey. This symbolizes a revolution. However, the green clothing is quite a mystery. Only certain things are marked green but seems to me that it is random. Also, the lines that compose the figures of the man, woman, and child are not straight, but are curvy.

I found this exhibit to be refreshing in a way where even though it was in the past, it affects the future immensly. Art is the perfect way to express one’s self even if it is representing the vision of a whole society.

 

Unit 1 Summary

From the moment I stepped into the classroom, I thought that Art1010 would just be about simple old paintings. However, during the first week or so, we started to talk about what art really means to us. Art can mean a handful of things to us and is completely subjective to the human eye. Each individual interprets and comprehends things differently. Even though art is subjective, some of the components are incorporated into each masterpiece. Some of these components are uniqueness, imagination, expressiveness, affluential, and complex. These all create the foundation for beautiful artwork. With every piece of art, that artist always includes something that makes it their own. Where no one can make the piece like them.

Other concepts in which I have learned are the Banking Model of Paulo Freire and the use of formal analysis. The banking model is a concept of education where the students only know how to retrieve, file, and store away certain information given to them. Students only know how to memorize the information given to them, but don’t actually take the time to understand the material that is distributed. In the article, when Freire says “banking,” he means to take and put away, just like you would do at a bank with your own money. This concept is still practiced in modern day education and is believed to be the worst way to teach. When teaching something, everyone’s voice should be heard on the topic being discussed. Also, the teachers should make sure that the students actually understand what’s being taught and not just memorizing the material for the sake of it.

The other concept that I have learned in Unit 1 is the use of formal analysis. I believe that this is the most important component of any artwork because by using formal analysis, we can pick apart the artwork piece by piece and truly understand its origin. Formal analysis is the meaning and evaluation of art. It focuses on the central idea and how the story is being told. For example, when looking at a piece of art, to use formal analysis you would look at the contrast of light, the scale of the painting, the color, line, depth, and historical context. By picking the artwork apart, it is much easier to get an understanding of what the artist was thinking about at the time of creation. It’s an inside look of his/her intentions. Historical context is one of the most important components of formal analysis. In my opinion, without historical context, we would be perplexed by what the artist is trying to portray. Artwork created now has a completely different agenda than what art back then portrayed. A portrait in the 1800’s would look substantially different than a portrait in 2018. It’s a must to know what’s going on at the time the art was created to truly understand its production process.

From Unit 1, I have gained a greater understanding of the foundations of artwork, what art can mean to different people, and why the education system should be changed. These are some things that I thought I would never know until I entered the classroom. From the understanding of formal analysis, I look at art much differently and in a more superficial way. Now that I know all the key factors that go into creating these masterpieces, I feel more cultured and like I have an upper hand on the rest of the world. 

Formal Analysis: Blog #4

When looking at a true piece of art, the human eye tends to only look at the abstract version of it. In art museums, when asked to describe the artwork, people just simply describe what’s apparent. But, what happens when we look deeper into the artist’s work? This is called formal analysis. With formal analysis, you look at the work of art and try to understand what the artist is trying to convey visually. Along with this attempt at understanding, an individual also provides their own context into the piece of art. You add your life experiences, your emotions, your education, and with this there’s a brand new interpretation. Sure there is no absolute definition of formal analysis, due to the fact that everybody’s interpretation is different. However, there are certain key components that makeup the foundation of formal analysis.

These key components are color, lines, space and mass, scale, composition, and historical context. With color, the basic step to understanding it is to identify what colors were used and how they were used. Are they vibrant or are they dull?

Lines in formal analysis can distinguish the art piece by determining if the strokes are broken up or strong and continous. This can tell you a little bit about what the artist was feeling at that point in time. Was the artist put together and mentally strong (having strong and continous lines) or was his life chaotic and messy (broken up lines)? This may also depend on how you are feeling at that point in time while looking at the work of art.

Space and mass can determine whether or not the image shows a sense of three dimensional space and portrays it as if it had weight or volume. This concept makes the image come to life as if you are looking at it in real time, during that period. With scale, the artist depicts images in smaller or larger forms. For example, an artist would depict gods as larger images while regular humans as tiny specks in comparison. This is a very important key concept when analyzing a piece of art.

The composition and historical context of art tells us what the artist was drawing and what the world was like during the life of the artist. This can really tell a story because by understnding the time period of the artist, we can understand why he/she drew the image the way he/she did. If you drew that same image that the artist drew today, it would definitely represent something different because times are different. Just look at the art placed in the Museum of Modern Art. The art pieces you see there, would have never been drawn or painted a century ago. That is because times were surely different in the 1800’s. Time is a huge concept in formal analysis and truly helps in understanding the art.

— modern art Image result for art art artImage result for art art art