Final Project Walking Tour

Walk in the Paths of Devotion

A Virtual Museum Tour Through Ancient Artworks

Divya Roy

Table of Contents

What is devotion…………………………………………… 1

Ancient Mesopotamia………………………………………………………………. 2

Ancient Egypt………………………………………………………………………… 3

Ancient Greece……………………………………………………………………….. 4

Ancient Rome………………………………………………………………………… 5

Renaissance…………………………………………………………………………… 6

What is Devotion

Devotion can be interpreted to mean a lot of different things. It is a form of “love, loyalty, or enthusiasm for a person, activity, or cause” or in a religious perspective, devotion is to a deity, practiced through religious worship, prayers or religious observances. Art, especially ancient art, is a window through which one can see this psyche of people and the propensity of their devotion to a particular deity.

The art made by the artists is in fact a form of devotion, as the elements give so much depth about the subject and the artist.  Art is a form of devotion, such that when art changes so does devotion.


This museum tour will focus on multiple works of art from different eras and places in a journey to understand and get a grasp of the psychology behind devotion for the ancient peoples and its creators.

“True devotion is motivated by love alone and devoid of selfish entanglements.”

Indeed, there is no doubt that the works of art we will see today are made in devotion to the Gods of the time, a portion of love alone and devoid of selfish entanglements, as the art works speaks volumes through the intricate work about struggles and selflessness of the creators.


Period: Neo-Sumerian

Date: ca. 2090 B.C.

Place: Mesopotamia

Classification: Stone-sculpture-inscribed

The work from a visual perspective tells of an important and revered subject. The subject in the statues is Gudea, a ruler of the state of Lagash. The statue demonstrates a very sophisticated level of craftsmanship for the time and even today. The inscription details the story of Gudea, and how the statue is dedicated to honor the Gods/goddesses by being placed in a temple. Each of the very fine detailing of stone, form the hat, to the fingers/toes and the inscription is telling of the value of this particular artwork. This is almost an offering to the Gods, as the art is sought to represent divinity and the craft something more than the natural.


For ancient Egyptians, the ideal pharaoh was a man in his young adulthood and in the prime of his life however, physical reality often tended to be less important as old men, women, or even babies who have the title of pharaoh could be viewed in this very ideal form. Therefore, the visual image especially portrayed in artworks becomes a relevant part of devotion. The representation of of the female Hatshepsut shows exactly that. The inscriptions for her depicted her with masculine and feminine grammar even though it states she is a woman.

This statue was one that stood in the grand doorway on the upper terrace of Hatshepsut’s temple.

Period: New Kingdom

Date: ca. 1479-1459 B.C.

Place: Upper Egypt


Ancient Greece was probably one of the more widely recognized civilizations for their devotion to the supernatural, as they worshipped multiple Gods, each with a distinct character and quality. The Hellenists, like many ancient civilizations used there Gods as a way for making sense of the chaos in the world, and form an origin for human life.

The most intriguing aspect of devotion in my perspective is that, the Greeks were able to form devotion through the mundane. In a sense incorporating religion and devotion into their everyday life, so much so that they are constantly reminded of it in every part of their day. Below is a simple vase depicting the story Perseus being sent to obtain the head of Medusa by King Polydektes.


Period: Classical

Date: 450-440 B.C.

Place: Attic Greece

Classification: Vases


The ancient Roman era gives a different portrayal in devotion. The deities become dramatically similar in physiology to human beings. The devotion though still to a deity, shifts to the ideal image of human beings. The musculature and bone structure become highly emphasized for the ancient Romans. In a sense, this marks the beginning of a human superiority complex, and devotion starts to become self-centered. Because artists were able to portray the human body so keenly, the devotion toward the “human” becomes even more stronger. The athlete’s body was highly idealized and emphasized during this time.

Name: Marble Statue of Bearded Hercules

Period: Early Imperial, Flavian

Date: 68-98 AD

Classification: Stone sculpture


During the time of Renaissance, devotion becomes more focused and organized, as Christianity starts to take root among the people. People looked to a man named Jesus Christ as their savior. Because of Jesus’ narrative, paintings came of real value and emotion, like all other arts discussed. Jesus’ story became a center of focus, as it was so painful, touching and moving. Every aspect of Christ’s life was poured out into paintings. Especially, his climatic moments on Earth, were emphasized. The last supper became a symbolic element of the church to come together in communion and join the community in a union even after the leader’s death. The painting of the last supper became an emblem for community and worship.

Name: Last Supper

Date: 1325-30

Place: Italy

Classification: Painting


Annotated Bibliography 

Ziegler, Joanna E. “Michelangelo and the Medieval Pietà: The Sculpture of Devotion or the Art of Sculpture?” Jstor, 1995, www-jstor-org.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu/stable/pdf/767122.pdf. 

This article focuses on how reacting to Flemish models Michelangelo remained consistent in his views of art. He radically redefined the enterprise of the sculpture and sculpture making and also art itself. He did so by making the sculptures inviolable (due to the change of material from wood to marble) and resistant to the physical transformations. I particularly took interest in this article because it was seen that the Flemish works have been associated with devotion and in ritualistic proceedings. This transformation in art as a consequence of Michelangelo explores how devotion becomes tested when art transforms.

“IWonder – Why Does the Art of Ancient Greece Still Shape Our World?” BBC News, BBC,2017www.bbc.com/timelines/z99tn39.

This research site goes into the specific of Greek art in chronological time while incorporating with its history. And we see, that Greek art often becomes a reminder for future generations about previous generations, it was a way of carrying down legacies. This is why art is important to the Greeks. Ancient art especially carries down the traditions of ancient Greek people, and allowing them to overwhelmingly present in everything gives a constant reminder to Greeks about who they are and who they were.

“Renaissance Art.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 1 Jan. 2018, www.history.com/topics/renaissance/renaissance-art.

This website really helped to give a full understanding of Renaissance art and especially why it was important in Christianity. This helps draw the importance of Christ in almost all of Renaissance paintings and other artworks. The role serves a bigger purpose to unite the Christian community.

“Hatshepsut.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, 2010, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544446.

This website explores why gender was not an issue in Egyptian art work as their idealized figure always remained universal in all of the artworks. This becomes an important aspect in devotion as the role or title of pharaoh was to be devoted to rather than the individual identity.

NĂSTĂSOIU, DRAGOŞ GH. .. “Patterns of Devotion and Traces of Art.” Umeni / Art, vol. 64, no. 1, Jan. 2016, pp. 29–43. EBSCOhost,ezproxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aft&AN=114579735&site=ehost-live

The article provides an analysis of art history and patterns of devotion by referring to the pilgrimage of Queen Elizabeth Piast to Marburg, Cologne, and Aachen, Germany in 1357. Following the journey, the reader becomes convinced that there is infact a connection between art and devotion and two are inseparable.



Final Project: Paper Proposal

Topic: Humanism throughout history.

Thesis Statement: Although the humanism movement started during the time of ancient Greece and Rome it is still seen portrayed in artwork today.

Introduction: Humanism is the a movement in art history that shifted the  focus of art works from deities and worshiping the deities to a focus on humans, more specifically the ideal human. Instead of valuing a God or religion during the movement people began to focus more on valuing humanity therefore making themselves gods. equal to gods by putting themselves at the center of all social and moral concerns. Prior to the humanism movement art was typically made to worship the deities. An example of this can be seen in the photograph of the Standing Male Worshiper.
Prior to the humanism movement art was typically made to worship the deities. The Standing Male Worshiper is an example of a piece of artwork that was created before the humanism movement. As it can be seen in the photograph the creator of this sculpture did not put much effort into adding detail to the human represented in the sculpture. The artist of the sculpture created it to serve one purpose which was to be a praying stand in for the person it represented.  

                                                     Artist: N/A
Title: Standing Male Worshiper   
Date: 2900–2600 B.C.                   
Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art 

As time began to progress so the idea of humanism began to form and the shift from making art that focused on deities and worshiping them to making art that worshiped humanity and focused on the ideal human body. An example of an artwork that showed the start of the transition from focus on deities to a focus on humans is the Statue of Kouros. Unlike the Standing Male Worshiper which had almost no detail on the human body, the Statue of Kouros focuses soley on the human body. It is a representation of a young nude male. The artist of this sculpture adds small but noticeable details such as the outlining of the mans abs and chest. Another faint but drastic difference between the two sculptures is the sense of movement that can be seen in the legs of the Statue of Kouros. As seen in the photograph below, the left leg of the statue strides forward giving the sculpture a feeling of movement.
Artist: N/A
Title: Statue of Kouros
Date: 600 BCE  
Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

As more time passed the humanism movement became larger and lead to much more drastic changes in the art world. An example of a artwork that shows drastic a drastic change due to the humanism movement is the statue of Polykleitos. Similar to the statue of Kouros, the Doryphoros has a sense of movement but different to the Kouros, the Doryphoros has no symmetry. Instead the statue of Polykleitos has contrapposto. Contrapposto is the use of counter balancing to form "an asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure in which the line of the arms and shoulders contrasts with while balancing those of the hips and leg."(Google definition).By giving the statue contrapposto it the artist was able to show that the statue is suppose to represent a person walking.

Artist: Polykleitos
Title: Doryphoros (Roman copy)
Date: 450-440 BCE
Museum: Museo Archaeologico Nazionale (Naples)

Proposal/Task: The student is to select five modern pieces of artworks and explain how they represent/show that the humanism movement is still a part of art to this day.

Requirements: Assemble a minimum of five works of art that relate to the thesis statement. Images should have the following information: artist, title, date.

Conclusion: After gathering and explaining the 5 artworks you have chosen the reader/ grader of this assignment should be able to easily tell how each individual piece of art relates to the humanism movement and how it is similar or different to the 3 artworks that I have listed above.  

Work Cited:Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris, "Standing Male Worshipper (Tell Asmar)," in Smarthistory, December 16, 2015, accessed December 17, 2018, https://smarthistory.org/standing-male-worshipper-from-the-square-temple-at-eshnunna-tell-asmar/.

“Standing Male Worshiper.” The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/40.156/.

Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker, "Marble statue of a kouros (New York Kouros)," in Smarthistory, December 20, 2015, accessed December 17, 2018, https://smarthistory.org/marble-statue-of-a-kouros-new-york-kouros/.

“Marble Statue of a Kouros (Youth).” The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/32.11.1/.

Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker, "Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear-Bearer)," in Smarthistory, August 8, 2015, accessed December 17, 2018, https://smarthistory.org/polykleitos-doryphoros-spear-bearer/.
“Marble Statue of a Kouros (Youth).” The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/32.11.1/.


Final Project – Walking Tour

Hello, and welcome to my tour.  My name is Perel, but you can call me Perri.  Today we will be talking about Egyptian art and the use of Hieroglyphics/hieroglyphs within them. Hieroglyphics was the written language of Ancient Egypt.  “It was in form of objects–animals, plants, and household items–that the ancient Egyptians saw around them every day.” (Teeter) Image result for rosetta stoneOur first piece of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics that we’ll look at is the Rosetta Stone.  The Rosetta stone is the most well-known reason of why scholars can understand hieroglyphics in today’s modern world.  It had writing in hieroglyphics and other languages to translate what was being written for all those people who couldn’t read hieroglyphics.

The second piece of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics that we’ll look at is papyrus and the hieroglyphics written on it.  Papyrus is a plant that was used for a number of objects, but the most important us was as a “writing surface” for things like “household and administrative documents, letters, contracts and other legal texts, illustrated narratives, and religious texts.”

This piece of papyrus has hieroglyphics on it since that was the only form of writing that was available. There are more than 800 used hieroglyphics, but the most common are the twenty-four that are used to sound out words (like the English letters).

Next we are going to look at the amulets.  These were put on jewelry, put around the house to beautify the dwelling, or buried with a mummy to have positive energy.  Many Egyptians carried them around as a form of good luck and to bring positive energy.  Some of the amulets had writing on it, hieroglyphics, to write exactly what energy they wanted the amulets to bring them.   They were the perfect thing to carry around because of their size, they were convenient.

 The next thing we’ll look at is “Mummy Mask of a Woman  with a Jeweled Garland”.  THis was a mask placed over the mummy before it was placed in the tomb.  There are paintings all around it to tell the story of the person in the mummy, to bring good energy to the persons transition to the afterlife, and to beautify the mummy so that the person is honored.  Within the beautiful painting there are hieroglyphics.  This is done to explain some of the painting, to give some positive words, and to identify the person within the mummy.


The last piece we are going to look at are these weapons.  These were used by the Egyptians in battle.  The curved edge was sharp and was a knife to fight the enemies.  The hieroglyphics were engraved onto these items to give the fighter good luck in battle, and to mark who’s weapon is whoms.  Each hieroglyph can be an entire word so even though there are about ten hieroglyphics on the piece it could say numerous things.

This tour was designed to show the different ways in which hieroglyphics were used and the different objects it was used on and I hope I accomplished that.

  • Kamrin, Janice. “Papyrus in Ancient Egypt.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/papy/hd_papy.htm (March 2015)
  • Patch, Diana Craig. “Egyptian Amulets.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/egam/hd_egam.htm (October 2004)
  • “Rosetta Stone.” Britannica Online Academic Edition, 2018, pp. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • Teeter, Emily. “Egyptian Hieroglyphs.” Calliope, vol. 14, no. 9, 2004, pp. 7–10.
  • The British Museum, “Paintings from the Tomb-chapel of Nebamun,” in Smarthistory, August 29, 2016, accessed December 12, 2018, https://smarthistory.org/paintings-from-the-tomb-chapel-of-nebamun/.

Final Project


Although women and feminism are sometimes overlooked in the discussion of Egyptian art, The presence of  Feminism and women in Ancient Egyptian culture is not only reflected in Egyptian art, but adds an entire new layer of importance, depth and value to the artwork.



Feminism was subtle  integrated in the fashion of the men in Ancient Egypt, showing their respect and need for feminism in their own everyday lives.


  • Egyptian clothing was about class. The clothes that everyone wore reflected which social class they belonged to and the status that they held in society
  • The basic attire for All men in Ancient Egyptian society was a wrap skirt around their waist,because it was fashionable (Fun fact :the color of the skirts were preferably white to reflect cleanliness)
  • Depending on how rich a man was, their skirts would be decorated with various amount of expensive jewelry and beads.
  • The clothes were mostly made by women – this meaning that behind the scenes, women dictated what looked fashionable and therefore played a enormous role in the unique appearances of ancient egypt
  • Men (including the Pharaohs) also wore makeup to darken their eyes
  • To conclude the various integrations of femininity into the men’s fashion wear in Ancient Egypt ( jewelry, skirts, beads, makeup) showed that men valued the balance of masculinity and femininity. The combination of both was seen as  a sign of strength, status, and appealing to the gods.
  • The presence of femininity in egyptian fashion reflected a major Egyptian value as well. ““One of the central values of ancient Egyptian civilization, arguably the central value, was ma’at – the concept of harmony and balance in all aspects of one’s life”
  • Take the painting below for example Depicts the process of Egyptian Afterlife
    • The men are all wearing skirts or dress – not one pair of pants is in sight
    • Each male present has an adornment of some sort, whether it be jewelry or extra fabric, which signifies their individual role and power in their Human life.
    • Each males as well can be seen wearing eyeliner.
    • All of the men present in this painting ( with the exception of the scribe) are gods. They are looked up to and respected by everyone living in Egypt. However even the Gods of ancient egypt cannot deny the need for femininity and balance in their everyday lives, as depicted in the painting.




Women’s role in everyday life was essential to the society functioning as well as it did. These depictions of women in action through ancient egyptian art are necessary to show that ancient Egypt didn’t just consist of the conquering of other nations and how strong the pharaoh or any man’s masculinity was. On the other hand it displayed just how strong the women were as well

  • Women were mainly in charge of the household duties ( cooking and cleaning, raising the children) while men were in charge of going to war and handling“ affairs of the state” In terms of social status however, the roles of both genders combined displayed what was valued in the social scale for Ancient Egypt. Long story short, to be viewed as a wholesome balanced family in ancient Egypt you can’t have one without the other.
  • Women has the same rights under the law as men.
  • Women handled their own individual property
  • Woman decided who they wanted to marry and also decided if they wanted divorces or not.
  •  Women were also goddesses, One goddess that we can mention is Bastet. This goddess specifically looked out for the good of women and protected all the affairs of women
  • Women were also priest who could interpret dreams (Dream’s were very important on the religious scale)  dreams were considered to be portals to the after life.
  • Take the statue below for example
    • It promotes the equality between both the male and the female in the family
    • If you look even closer the man is leaning back and the woman is holding up
    • In other words, she is so much more than just his support system, she is an equal, she is strong and powerful. Without her he wouldn’t survive.




There were many queens in ancient Egyptian history, but Queen Nefertiti is the the default queen that most people refer to. The reason being she as a queen arguably contributed more to ancient Egypt legacy than some other kings and pharaohs.

  • – Nefertiti, whose name means “a beautiful woman has come,”
  • She ruled alongside her husband Akhenaten, and made decisions for the well being of Egypt
  • She and her husband started the religious revolution in creating the Atens clan.


The carving below displays Nefetari alongside her husband with their children.

-As stated before they are equals

– She Is seated on the throne alongside her husband. This suggesting that no decision can be made without her.

( Scroll Down)

(Below is the Pdf document with the pictures. )


Final Essay (Second Topic Chosen)

Michael Cefalo
ARTD 1010 – 9:30 AM
Professor Shaw
Final Essay

Is Everything Connected?

                 Throughout the monumental span of history that our world has traversed through, we along with every other inhabitant have evolved a great deal. However not only have we undergone massive changes, but so has the art and sculptures produced during our ever-changing timeline. Looking back on what we have not only learned during the course of our semester but to the pieces that the Met Museum holds home to, we can begin to notice a similar trend in both the statues and art pieces. One might just play the thought off as a simple coincidence, a mere inspiration related incident that drove many pieces to follow the same trend. But if delved into deeper we can truly begin to see morsels of something greater that could be at play, something that in turn can tie everything we’ve seen throughout the last few months, and everything’s that’s been created during the last millennium, together.
Starting us off the beaten path are the sculptures I had seen at the Met. The statue of Eirene, the marble statue of the lion, and the bronze horse. At first read, these three pieces may seem as though they are leagues apart as if they have nothing to do with each other and were just made for the sake of it. And yes, that could very well be the case and they may not at all tie together, but with the information gathered about them, the times they were created, the place they originate from, and the backstories that spin their tales, we are able to weave together some loose points, giving us a pretty clear comparison. To start off, we have the piece known as the Bronze Horse. The Bronze Horse was the epitome of elegance, as it portrayed the Greeks use of Geometric art to create a wonderfully stylized piece. From this, the Greeks had begun to grow their art of creation and began to advance what they already could do. Transferring over to the piece known as the Marble Lion, we can see a clear-cut comparison. This statue usually sat guard at tombs of people with great importance, supposedly protecting them in both the mortal world and afterlife. It took the base model of the Bronze Horse and expanded on it, creating a full torso of a very realistic looking lion in a motion pose. Moving forward to the last statue I had observed from the Met, we have the Statue of Eirene. She, just as the lion, was created from a marble base (but had originally been created with a bronze base just as the Bronze Horse). Portrayed to be a goddess (daughter of Zeus and Themis), she was one of three maidens and was most closely associated with the fertility of the earth and the nurturing of children. Already closely relating to the previous two statues from the exhibit in terms of their surreal natures, they also relate in the fact that all three of them originate from Greece, and can be connected by either the product used to create them or through the form they take once completed. Though this is just the start of how each of them truly forms together. Although the may have proved to be base models for each other, they also turned out to be base models for the start of an artistic uprise in the early Roman empire. Each of these pieces were front-runners in inspiration for artists in Rome, as they had gathered pointers from each of these statues to create art in their fashion.
Upon gathering information from these three works of art and how they connect to create a much bigger picture, it is clear to see that many distinct art styles as well as sculptures tend to follow a certain “guideline” per say, or gather information from each other to create and evolve over a span of time. We have seen this many times over throughout the semester, and by doing so, I was able to incorporate that knowledge along with newfound information gathered from the Met and websites to fully conclude the ever so lingering question of if everything was truly connected. Although this may seem like a vague explanation of something that may have seemed bigger, it is, in fact, the key to unlocking a whole world of new views and methods of answering this question. It provides the baseline systemic method to follow whilst walking down this road of ever lingering questions, and the ways to solve them. Overall this was a very intriguing question to follow as a last hoorah to the wonderful semester and was made much clearer with the help of every topic gone over throughout the course.


Works Cited

The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/247173.

The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/248140.

The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/251050.

David, Ariel. “Linking the Past and the Present Through Art.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 7 Sept. 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/09/08/arts/08iht-rartisrael.html.

The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, www.metmuseum.org/blogs/teen-blog/renaissance- portrait/blog/studying-art-from-the-past.

Final Project: Gods and Humans in Art History

Eric Zheng

Professor Shaw

ARTD 1010

12 December 2018

Gods and Humans in Art History

Throughout history, the interactions between humans and gods have been represented through sculptures and paintings by using symbolism and humanism to show how humans and gods have flourished. Gods and goddesses have always been a part of the human society, in order for humans, such as the Greeks and Romans, to express their beliefs and the way they worshiped their gods was through the form of art. Greek and Romans made these artworks so that they can honor the gods as a reminder for future generations that there is someone that will lead them, but without humans, gods cannot influence these civilizations. Humans and gods have had several interactions in Greek mythology, it all begins with the King of all gods, Zeus. He is the one that is the creator of the conflicts among humans and gods, because he decides whether or not the humans have to work hard to survive, while the gods can live at ease and care free.

Artist: Unknown/ Gift of the Hearst Foundation, 1956 (56.234.15)
Title: Marble statue of Hermes
Date: Roman, Imperial period, 1st or 2nd century A.D
Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Marble statue of Hermes, Copy of work attributed to Polykleitos, Marble, Pentellic, Roman

This art piece located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City is known as the Marble Statue of Hermes. Hermes was the god of trade and was also known as the messenger of the gods, he was often interacting with humans such as travelers, herdsman, merchants, and etc. He is depicted in this statue naked with a robe on his arm showing his masculinity. Hermes was said to be quick and cunning and he was able to move freely between the mortals and the divine, such as the Underworld, with out consequences. He would protect the mortals and ancient myths say that he was a trickster by outwitting the gods for his own amusements or to help humankind. He was also known for his love affairs with many goddesses and mortals. Hermes was the son of Zeus and Maia and he had several siblings. Zeus also had many affairs with mortals, goddesses and other beings, he also had many children that were gods, demigods, or etc. Hermes takes after his father with his affairs and the way they intervene with mortals lives, like father like son.

Artist: Unknown/ Gift of Mrs. Fredrick F. Thompson, 1903 (03.12.13)
Title: Marble Statue of a youthful Hercules
Date: Roman, Flavian period, A.D. 68-98
Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Marble statue of a youthful Hercules, Marble, Island ?, Roman

This sculpture represents the hero known as Hercules, and it belongs in the Metropolitan Museum of Art along with the statue of Hermes. The structure’s name is the Marble statue of a youthful Hercules, it shows Hercules holding a club or a weapon in one hand and the skin of the Nemean lion in the other while he leans against what seems to be a tree which is used as a support for the structure. The Greek and Romans portrays their gods nude to show how muscular they where and they believed that the male nude is the highest form of beauty showing athleticism and exercise by representing not only athletes but heroes and gods as well. Hercules was also the son of the god Zeus like Hermes, however his mother was a mortal women named Alcmene. Zeus had many affairs with women which made his wife Hera furious because he had so many children that wasn’t hers. Hercules was known as a demigod, a being that is half god and half mortal, he was gifted with great strengths and stamina because he was a demigod. He grew up becoming a hero that fought in wars with the goddess Hera and he traveled to the Underworld. However, his life was not all care free compared to other gods. Hercules came across struggles as a human suffering like a man even though he had powers of a god.

Artist: Unknown/ Lent by Antikensammlung, Stacchiche Museen zu Berlin (AvP VII 24)
Title: Marble statue of Athena Parthenos
Date: Greek, Hellenistic period, ca. 170 B.C.; after the mid-5th century B.C.
Museum: The Metropolitan Museum

Statue of Athena Parthenos, Marble, Greek

This statue is known as the Marble statue of Athena Parthenos also located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. She is known for being the goddess of wisdom and war and several other important things. In this statue Athena is portrayed in clothing with a helmet, unlike the sculptures of Hermes and Hercules, she also has no arms or legs shown compared to the other two sculptures. Athena was represented as a companion to heroes or a patron goddess of heroic endeavor protecting civilizations and cities. She was the protector of Athens and fought in the Trojan War against Paris. Athena was said to have gone to war with humans and mythical beings as ally and as foe such as helping Hermes on a quest to kill Medusa or Hercules on driving away Stymphalian birds. Zeus was also Athena’s father however she did not have a mother like Hermes and Hercules, she was said to be born from Zeus’ head after he experiences a headache and she emerged from his forehead fully grown and clothed in armor.

In Greek mythology, gods and humans have had many interactions that have been represented in art history. These art works of gods created by humans are their way of showing the symbolism and meaning of the gods and humans relationship. The Marble statue of Hermes was created by humans to express their beliefs and the way they worshiped their gods for others to see such as future generations or other civilizations. Hermes was a messenger god often crossing paths with humans and helping them or guiding them to their destinations safely. The Marble statue of a youthful Hercules was created by the mortals so they could show the beauty of the male physique and how much they took pride in athleticism. Hercules was a demigod meaning he was half human so he suffered consequences and struggled like a human and was known to be a hero among the mortal world. The Marble statue of Athena Parthenos was made so humans could portray a goddess that could either protect or destroy mortals as to not infuriate her. Athena was the goddess of war, so she often interacted with humans in conflict or as a guardian. Humans and Gods share a relationship that goes way back to the B.C. and A.D. eras, these works of art depict that bond and what the gods meant to the mortals, humans whether it be their worship or conflict.

Works Cited

“The Interaction Between the Gods and Mankind.” UNIV 200, rampages.us/okayyoo/2016/10/19/the-interaction-between-the-gods-and-mankind/.

“Hermes • Facts and Information on Greek God Hermes.” Greek Gods & Goddesses, greekgodsandgoddesses.net/gods/hermes/.

“The Enduring Art of Marble Sculpture.” Khan Academy, Khan Academy, www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/getty-museum/getty-sculpture/a/the-enduring-art-of-marble-sculpture.

“Athena • Facts and Information on Greek Goddess Athena.” Greek Gods & Goddesses, greekgodsandgoddesses.net/goddesses/athena/.

“The Greeks Interaction with the Gods.” An Introduction to Greek Mythology, anintroductiontogreekmythology.weebly.com/the-greeks-interaction-with-the-gods.html.







MET Museum Visit

Throughout this semester I have visited the Metropolitan Museum. I honestly really liked going to the Metropolitan Museum compare to the Brooklyn Museum. As I walked in the entrance, I saw lots of people walking around the area. People were talking among themselves very loudly. The museum was huge and wide that I feel like people would easily get lost. I can imagine how many people going in and out of the museum every day. During that day, the weather was extreme cold, and I saw lots of people waiting outside patiently for the door to open. I saw students from school coming to visit the museum.

I also have wondered what exactly are the Buddha made out of. Do people actually believe this religious Buddha? Why is Buddha very famous in the spread throughout other countries? What are there unique design compare to others?

However, as I observe around I saw many greats things. Such as, different culture paintings, nice sculptures, pottery, photograph, drawings, costumes, and so much more. What I liked about the museum was the Asian art which was consist of the Chinese, Japanese, and the Korean sculpture. I just like how the design was look and very outstanding. I find that these three countries has its unique and similarities difference between them.

Each of the sculpture has its own way to model and how it is presented to the audience. For example, as a Chinese culture, my family believe these Buddhisms. We would go to the Chinese temple and pray, we show our belief and respect to them The belief that there is an afterlife and not everything ends with death, that Buddha teaches people how to follow a successful path, how to be a good human being and do good things.

Buddha Dipankara (Diguang), ,Sculpture


This sculpture name the Buddha Dipankara (Diguang) it was during the period of the Northern Wei Dynasty around 386 to 534 years. Made with Sandstone with traces of pigment.  This imagery represent the promise or possibly of enlightenment in a future life.

Arhat (Luohan)


This image is called the Arhat (Luohan) during the period of Liao dynasty from 907 to 1125. It was made out of the stoneware with three-color glaze. It describe the achieved spiritual development and how the Buddhism is being protected.

Dainichi Nyorai, ,Sculpture


This model is name the Dainichi Nyorai during thr Heian period around 794 to 1185 years. This was made out of wood with gold leaf and lacquer decoration.

Kashyapa, ,Sculpture


This image is called the Kashyapa during the Joseon dynasty during the 1392-1910. Made out of wood with polychrome paint.   His smiling face and relaxed posture convey benevolence and wisdom.

Daoist immortal Laozi, ArtistChen Yanqing,Sculpture


This sculpture is named the Dadaist immortal Laozi  during the Ming Dynasty around the 1363-1644 years. Made out of the gilt brass and lost wax.  Spread throughout Daoism which was a major religion in China. It was define of beliefs and practices that helps guide for everyday life.

Lastly,  I can say that China and Korea has a similarities kinds of sculpture  between  them.  For example,  the colors that makes it stands out, structure, forms, and lines. This relate to the lecture from the beginning of the semester. Talking about what is ART and what actually does ART show us. How do they interact with our society.

Final Project: Shift of Focus in Ancient Egyptian, Greek, & Roman Art

Sharona Abramova

ARTD 1010 – 9:30 AM

Professor Shaw

Final Essay

Shift of Focus in Art History

Throughout history, art has been a way to understand what was going on during that era. It also has had an influence for the future generations. In civilizations such as Ancient Egypt & Mesopotamia, the focus of their works of art were the gods. The focus in art shifted from Gods in Egyptian art to humans in Greek & Roman art. This is known as Humanism. The Greeks & Romans believed that humans should be celebrated equal to or even more so than the Gods in their artwork. The art of the Greeks and Romans is known as classical art.

The Brooklyn Museum



ca. 1479–1400 B.C.E.


As seen here, there was an emphasis that was made on the Gods in Egyptian artwork. This goddess, whose name means “she who loves silence,” has a woman head and a cobra’s body. An animal with a human head is a common thing Egyptians did in art. Some background information is that as a local deity, Meretseger guarded the Valley of the Kings, where monarchs were placed in a tomb, and the village of craftsmen who worked there. Though a dangerous animal, her purpose was to protect the workers in the valley, and also sometimes those that did wrong things. Gods were the focus in the art pieces showing superiority over human beings. This is seen in the artwork because Meretseger is not portrayed as a human being.  This shows that the gods were special because they were portrayed in a different kind of appearance compared to humans because of their animal body and were the focus in Egyptian art. 


The Metropolitan Museum of Art (MET)

Marble statue of a kouros (youth)

Ancient Greece, Attic

ca. 590–580 B.C

This sculpture shows how humans became the center in art. This is one of the earliest marble statues of a human figure carved in Attica. Ideas were still taken from history. For example, the rigid stance, with the left leg forward and arms at the side was from Egyptian art. The statue marked the grave of a young Athenian aristocrat. These sculptural types displayed nudity, highlighting their unique hairstyles and abstracted musculature. He is standing while being nude to depict equality & to represent that the physical structure of humans were the same regardless of their social hierarchy.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art (MET)

Marble statue of Hermes


1st or 2nd century A.D.

The Greeks had a major influence on Roman art. This sculpture depicts a built, muscular man standing in a more confident pose in nudity. Humans, like in Greek art, were the core in Roman art. It is a Roman replica of a statue attributed to Polykleitos. Romans tend to add a touch of humor to their artwork and that’s what made them unique.
The art of the Egyptians served a different purpose than the art of the later cultures. Egyptian art was meant to benefit a divine. However, it still did influence Greek & Roman artists. The art of the Egyptians was functional and created for a practical purpose. On the other hand, the later art was intended to be for aesthetic pleasure. The statues made by the Greeks held the spirit of the god or the deceased. The Egyptians thought of art as “functional above everyone else” (Mark, 2017). The idea of “art for art’s sake” was not familiar to them. If they saw how their art is displayed at museums nowadays, it would be incomprehensible to them. Egyptian art is still admired for its beauty and one of the reasons is that they placed a value in symmetry. Egyptian art is often criticized for being not refined because there was a lack of emotion/expression on the face, always 2D, & no light/shadow in the compositions. However, Egyptians did this on purpose. They thought that a spirit of the deity would need to represented the way they are in the pieces of art in order for the soul to continue its journey in the after life and had to survive in some form on earth.
Classical art by the Greeks & Romans owes its influence to the sheer beauty of humanity. Greece was conquered by Rome in 146 BC & that’s why Greek art had a major influence on Roman art. Romans even made copies of Greek art. They believed that a copy of an artwork doesn’t have less value than the original. The copies did often have variations to them. They often added a touch humor to some somber/serious elements portrayed in Greek artwork. They had an ability to adapt & uniquely combine their inspirations from previous centuries & that’s makes Roman art Roman.
Humanism is used in Greek & Roman art and it celebrates mankind by putting an emphasis on the human body. Humanism in different art sculptures evolved as it put more detailing on the body structures and face. They emphasized the body of man by making them have certain poses and different face expressions. Egyptian art focused more on deities & gods to honor them and put them at the center. On the other hand, Greek & Roman art focused on humans and how they’re the center of events.


Works Cited

Ancient Egyptian art

Introduction to ancient Greek art

Introduction to ancient Roman art







ART 1010 – Final Project

Sadika Chowdhury

Art 1010 Final Paper

Prof. Shaw


The Role of Women in the Ancient World

Art is a huge part of ancient history. Ancient art provides insight from the past about many different civilizations. Ancient art displays the scenarios of society, cultures, and traditions of the ancient world. It reflects the life of people during that period as well as the role each plays, including, man, women, children, and God. In artworks from early civilizations such as Ancient Egyptian, Ancient Roman and Ancient Greek women were represented differently in each civilization. The way women were portrayed in art tells much about the status and roles of women in society and the place where men wanted them. Since prehistoric times women have been portrayed in art, giving an impression of the perception the artist and the culture they lived in, had of women. In ancient Greece, the main role of women in Greek society was as a wife bearing and raising children. The wives also performed women’s work which included spinning, weaving, baking bread, cooking, serving, cleaning, and fetching water. Women were not inferior to men in many ways. Men and women had different roles in ancient Greek society. Their role did not encourage women to excel in the areas that men took on. The men felt the women should be subservient to the men and men were head of the family. Similarly, in ancient Roman, women also seemed like someone in charged of taking care of family, children, and husband, they were in charge of taking care household, but the men were the head of the household. Women’s role can be seen in art as lower than man; women were not allowed to vote or rule. Since women did not usually have a public role, it emphasizes not actions she took in life but rather the characteristics which the Romans considered to be those of an ideal wife. For this reason in women in ancient Roman artworks seemed inferior socially. In ancient Egypt, although men and women had different roles in society. However, unlike in many ancient civilizations, women were much more free, although they were not equal with men, both men and women in ancient Egypt accepted that everyone had their roles in the natural order of the universe and that the roles of men and women were different. In the art, from the formal paintings on tombs, the Egyptian stereotype of a woman was that of wife and mother, the husband being the head of the household. She worked indoors (mostly), out of the Egyptian sun, so her skin was lighter than that of her male counterparts. When she died, she was painted red, as were the men, as this was the color of rebirth.

Shabty of Lady Sati

Artist: Unknown

Credit Line: Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund

Date:  ca. 1390-1352 B.C.E.

Museum: Brooklyn Museum

Civilization: Ancient Egypt

This is the tomb of a woman, who is in the process of gender transformation. The ancient Egyptians believed that for a deceased woman to rebirth, she had to turn into a man. The woman transforms into a man to conceive herself so she can be reborn into the afterlife and live out eternity as a woman. Then, they were believed to come to life in the afterlife and help the deceased, especially with agriculture and manual labor. In the eyes of ancient Egyptians, the woman in this tomb has become a man, since she has a male face and hands since they are colored red, the “male” color. This use of color magically transformed her into a male being. In ancient Egyptian art, the color separate the gender, women were usually shown with whitish-yellow skin and men were shown with reddish-orange skin. A red face and hands also identified the deceased with the sun-god, Re, who traveled in a boat across the sky by day and into the land of the dead at night. This woman’s “male” red skin gave her access to transportation to the next life in the god’s boat. According to the Brooklyn Museum’s exhibition some background information from “A Woman’s Afterlife: Gender Transformation in Ancient Egypt” states that “the ancient Egyptians believed that in human reproduction it was the man who created the fetus, transferring it to the woman during intercourse, rebirth was impossible for a woman alone.” This clearly demonstrates the role of women in ancient Egypt, they were viewed as weak, they have to be supported by the men, and the men get full credits for her rebirth and even for to reproduce and conceive a child.

Queen Nefertari being led by Isis

Artist: Charles K. Wilkinson

Date: ca.1279–1213 B.C.

Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Civilization: Ancient Egypt

This artwork displays queens Nefertari, who was the main wife of Pharaoh Ramses II. This watercolor depicts the queen being led by the goddess Isis. Note that it shows Nefertari without her husband, Ramses II, this indicating the queen’s high status that allowed her to interact with the deities without him directly. In the article “Women in Ancient Times” reveals a different aspect of women role in ancient Egypt, it talks about Cleopatra and Nefertiti. It states “she single-handedly controlled the most powerful throne at that time for 21 years (51– 12 August 30 BCE). She was the last active pharaoh of Egypt…Even during her exile and the Roman Civil War, she remained true to her title and held her own until her death at age 39.” this article also mentions that “Nefertiti reined Egypt with her husband Akhenaten until 1330 BCE, sometime before Cleopatra. She ruled briefly alone after her husband’s death. She changed the way women were viewed from a political and leadership standpoint.” Example of these two great women of ancient Egypt demonstrates that ancient Egypt was not entirely man-dominated, women role was also important, it did provide women with some rights, freedom, and control, unlike other civilizations.

Statue of Dionysos leaning on a female figure (“Hope Dionysos”)

Artist: Pacetti, Vincenzo

Date: 27 B.C.–A.D. 68

Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Civilization: Ancient Roman

This is a figure of Dionysos, god of wine and divine intoxication. He is wearing a panther skin over his short chiton and his high sandals with animal heads on the overhanging skin flaps. He is also standing beside and leaning on a female figure. The size of the man and the woman figure in this artwork tells a lot of the role each play in the ancient Roman Society. The man figure is tall, the woman in short even though she is standing on a high stone, this is portraying the fact that no matter how hard the woman try she will still be below the man, and never will be able to reach the same height as the man. Also, it illustrates that woman and man are not equal; man is more superior. The male figure is leaning on the female figure’s head as if he is resting his arm which indicates that in Roman society a woman’s role is to take care of the family, children, husband, and to make sure the man is satisfied. In the article “The Role of Women in the Roman World” states “Roman women had a very limited role in public life. They could not attend, speak in, or vote at political assemblies and they could not hold any position of political responsibility…women were closely identified with their perceived role in society the duty of looking after the home and nurture a family.” This explains the artwork “Statue of Dionysos leaning on a female figure,” which reflects the role of women in ancient Roman society as inferior to men. Women and man had very different levels of status, and women were under incharge of man, there in the statue, the man put his arm on the woman’s head as displaying that she is his property and under his control.

Terracotta lekythos (oil flask)


Artist: Unknown

Credit Line: Fletcher Fund, 1931

Date: ca. 550–530 B.C.

Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Civilization: Ancient Greece

The art in this vase represents the women’s role in ancient Greece society. It displays women are making woolen clothes. One of the most important responsibilities of women in Ancient Greek society was the preparation of wool and the weaving of cloth. In the center of the vase, two women work at an upright loom. To the right, three women weigh wool. Farther to the right, four women spin wool into yarn, while between them finished cloth is being folded. Similar to Roman society, Women in the ancient Greek world had few rights in comparison to male citizens. Unable to vote, own land, or inherit, a woman’s place was in the home, taking care of the home, raising children, preparing food and cook, and weave cloth. They journeyed outside of the home to fetch water and to attend festivals. In the article “Women in Classical Greece” Hemingway states that “young girls between the ages of five and puberty were selected to serve the goddess Artemis in her sanctuary at Brauron. As “little bears,” they acted out the role of untamed animals that eventually would be domesticated through marriage.” This indicates that there were many rules, rituals, regulations, restrictions, and societal norms associated with women, and these apply from birth and late as the age of five. In ancient Greek culture, Women didn’t have any rights. The men had all the power over them. In fact, this system is called patriarchy, when the father of the oldest male figure is the head of the household. Women were not even allowed to eat and sleep in the same room with men. Therefore, many of the Greek artworks portraits women doing activities inside the house, and surrounded by women, just as displayed in the vase artwork.

Hence, art tells stories, and if we look deeper into ancient history, we can see that the depiction of women in art, which tells the story of women during that period. Throughout the ancient world, women were portrayed and treated differently in their society. They were bounded by the rules, regulations, norms, rituals, and expectations. Different civilizations have displayed the role of women differently. Although in ancient Egyptian culture, women were much freer compared to ancient Greece and ancient Rome, but not all the women in ancient Egypt had that same opportunity to live freely, only high-class women had that in favor. One societal perception which was common in all of these civilizations which is women’s role in the society was inferior, while men were the superior in all the cultures. And perhaps still today, we can often see around the world how people still fighting for gender equality, equal pay, and equal rights. It is important to acknowledge and visit the ancient history and compare the fact that it has been over centuries, but still today the role of women have remained the same in many countries in the world. Since in the world women are still fighting for their rights and seeking for their position in society, it indicates that the societal perception of men and women’s role have always remained the same as the ancient time; we have just moved on with the time, but our ancient attitude have stayed in our head.


Works Cited

Cartwright, Mark. “The Role of Women in the Roman World.” Ancient History    Encyclopedia, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 22 Feb. 2014, www.ancient.eu/article/659/the-role-of-women-in-the-roman-world/.

Hemingway, Colette. “Women in Classical Greece.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wmna/hd_wmna.htm (October 2004)

Livermore, Melina. “Women in Ancient Times.” Art News Portal, 26 Oct. 2016, www.artnewsportal.com/art-news/women-in-ancient-times

“A Woman’s Afterlife: Gender Transformation in Ancient Egypt.” Organized by Edward Bleiberg, Brooklyn Museum: The Dinner Party by Judy Chicago, 15 Dec. 2016, www.brooklynmuseum.org/exhibitions/womans_afterlife_ancient_egypt.

Artworks from The Metropolitan Museum of Art and The Brooklyn Museum